The Registry, Exonerations and False Convictions
The National Registry of Exonerations is the most comprehensive collection of exonerations in the United States ever assembled.
The great majority of false convictions never result in exoneration. Exonerations are most common among defendants wrongly convicted of the most severe violent crimes – especially murder and rape – and for those sentenced to death, life in prison, or many years in custody. Even then, whether or not a falsely convicted defendant is exonerated often depends on sheer luck.
The Registry was launched in May 2012 with a Report covering 873 exonerations from 1989 through February 2012. Since then, the Registry has added exonerations at a rate exceeding 200 a year.
About a third of the newly added exonerations are current cases which are posted within days or weeks of their occurrence. About two thirds are previously unknown exonerations that occurred months, years or decades before.
The previously unknown cases illustrate a central conclusion of our research: The exonerations we know about are just a fraction of those that have taken place.
As we continue to identify old exonerations that have remained unknown to us, we expect the range and diversity of the exonerations we list to continue to grow. For example, 83% of exonerations in our initial Report involved a rape or a murder, compared to only 62% of exonerations in the same period that were identified later by more painstaking research.
As of October 2014, the Registry included 1,465 exonerees:
- Sex: 92% men; 8% women.
- Race: 47% black; 40% white; 11% Hispanic; 2% Native American or Asian.
- Trials and Guilty Pleas: 82% convicted by juries; 7% convicted by judges; 11% pled guilty.
- Crimes: 46% falsely convicted of homicide; 29% of sexual assault (includes 12% convicted of child sex abuse); 14% of other violent crimes; 11% of non-violent crimes.
- DNA: 26% were exonerated at least in part by DNA evidence; 74% without DNA evidence.
- Time served: All told, these exonerees spent nearly 13,873 years in prison–on average 9 years each. Almost all were imprisoned for years; 41% for 10 years or more; 62% for at least 5 years.
- Contributing factors that led to their wrongful convictions (many cases have multiple factors):
- Perjury or False Accusation: 56%
- Official Misconduct: 47%
- Mistaken Witness Identification: 35%
- False or Misleading Forensic Evidence: 22%
- False Confessions: 13%
Among exonerations in specific crime categories:
- The rate of Perjury or False Accusations is highest in child sex abuse cases (82%) and homicide cases (67%).
- The rate of Official Misconduct is highest in homicide cases (59%) and child sex abuse cases (46%).
- The rate of Mistaken Identifications is highest in in Robbery cases (83%) and adult sexual assault cases (73%).
- The rate of False or Misleading Forensic Evidence is highest in adult sexual assault cases (33%) and child sex abuse cases (23%).
- The rate of False Confessions is highest in homicide cases (21%).
As of March 1, 2015:
Conviction Integrity Units: 2014 saw a substantial increase in the number of Conviction Integrity Units (CIUs) - units in prosecutors' offices that review and investigate post-conviction claims of innocence - from 9 CIUs in 2013, to 15 in 2014. CIUs played a role in 49 exonerations in 2014. In all previous years combined, CIUs were responsible for only 41 exonerations.
Guilty Pleas: Guilty pleas account for more than 95% of criminal convictions in the US, but only 200 of the 1,555 exonerations in the Registry, about 13%. Recently we have seen an increase in guilty plea exonerations: almost a quarter of all guilty plea exonerations in the Registry occurred in 2014 (47/200).
Record Breaking Year: 2014 was a record breaking year.
We knew of 125 exonerations in 2014 as of the end of the year; and we listed 127 exonerations in 2014 as of March 1, 2015.