All NRE reports represent a moment in time. For the most accurate data, please search on the Detailed View page. The website is updated daily, frequently with exonerations that occurred in the past.
Brian Banks was in high school and on his way to accept a football scholarship from USC when his dreams were dashed as he was falsely convicted of kidnapping and raping a classmate. Banks served more than five years in prison and another five years monitored as a registered sex offender. In 2011, his accuser was recorded admitting to fabricating the charges. With the help of the California Innocence Project, Banks successfully cleared his name, regained his reputation, and earned tryouts with several NFL football teams before signing with the Atlanta Falcons. Today, Brian Banks is an activist working to prevent wrongful convictions, a nationally-recognized motivational speaker, life coach, and the subject of a major feature film currently in development.
Franky Carrillo was raised in Lynwood, California, a small suburb of Los Angeles. At 16, he was charged with a murder he did not commit. Franky was tried as an adult and found guilty, despite his steadfast assertion that he was innocent. He was sentenced to live out the remainder of his life in prison. During his incarceration, Franky never lost hope in himself, the judicial system or his faith. Empowered by these personal convictions, he worked to prove his innocence. Franky’s efforts finally came to fruition when he was exonerated on March 16, 2011. After a long period of facing the dark realities of injustice, he re-emerged as a champion of equality and justice. In 2016, Franky graduated from Loyola Marymount University. He is now married and the proud father of two sons.
Denise Foderaro is a longtime advocate for justice and a researcher for the Registry. A University of Pennsylvania alumna, she played a central role in the creation of the Quattrone Center for the Fair Administration of Justice at the University of Pennsylvania Law School, which opened in 2013. Foderaro is the recipient, among other honors, of leadership awards from the Northern California Innocence Project and Death Penalty Focus, and the 2013 Hero of Justice Award from the Pennsylvania Innocence Project. She attributes her passion and persistence to her training as an occupational therapist and her experience as the wife of an innocent, wrongfully convicted defendant who was completely cleared after a successful appeal.
Brandon L. Garrett is the L. Neil Williams, Jr. Professor of Law at Duke University School of Law. His recent teaching and research has focused on criminal procedure, DNA exonerations, habeas corpus, scientific evidence, organizational prosecutions, and constitutional law. His recent publications include a federal habeas corpus casebook and
Convicting the Innocent: Where Criminal Prosecutions Go Wrong (Harvard University Press). His newest book, entitled
Too Big to Jail: How Prosecutors Compromise with Corporations, was published in 2014. Garrett attended Columbia Law School, where he was an articles editor of the Columbia Law Review and a Kent Scholar. After graduating, he clerked for the Hon. Pierre N. Leval of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and then worked as an associate at Neufeld, Scheck & Brustin LLP in New York City.
Lawrence C. Marshall, Professor of Law at Stanford Law School, is an internationally known authority on criminal law, wrongful convictions and the death penalty. In 1998 he co-founded the Center on Wrongful Convictions at the Northwestern University School of Law, and was its Legal Director until he moved to Stanford in 2005, where he served as Associate Dean of Clinical Education and David and Stephanie Mills Director of the Mills Legal Clinic from 2005 to 2013. Professor Marshall clerked for Justice John Paul Stevens of the United States Supreme Court and for Judge Patricia M. Wald of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia. He is of counsel to the law firm of Kirkland & Ellis and was previously at Mayer, Brown & Platt.
Jim Petro, former Ohio Attorney General, has litigated cases in venues from Mayor's Court to the United States Supreme Court. Before serving as Ohio Attorney General, he was elected State Representative, Cuyahoga County Commissioner, and Auditor of State. He was the nation's first state attorney general to intervene on behalf of an Innocence Project client. He later became a pro bono lawyer for the Ohio Innocence Project (OIP) and worked with Director Mark Godsey on Ohio's criminal justice reform law enacted in 2010. An active advocate for criminal justice reform, Petro received the 2010 Innocence Network Champion of Justice Award.
Nancy Petro, a writer, co-authored with Jim Petro
False Justice: Eight Myths that Convict the Innocent (Kaplan 2011; Peking University Press 2012), which earned a 2011 Constitutional Commentary Award (The Constitution Project) and the 2012 Media Award (Northern California Innocence Project). After a business career, she has focused on criminal justice advocacy, authoring or co-authoring articles for publications such as
InBrief (Case Western Reserve School of Law); the Ohio Innocence Project's
Annual Review; and
Wrongful Convictions & Miscarriages of Justice (Routledge 2013, edited by C. Ronald Huff and Martin Killias). She is a contributing editor of the Wrongful Convictions Blog.
Helen Prejean, a Roman Catholic nun and a member of the Congregation of St. Joseph, is known around the world for her tireless work against the death penalty. Her best-selling book,
Dead Man Walking, based on her experience as the spiritual advisor to death row inmates, was number one on the New York Times Best Seller List for 31 weeks, has been translated into ten languages, and was the basis of the Oscar-nominated 1996 film and an acclaimed opera of the same name. Sister Helen’s second book,
The Death of Innocents, examines how flaws in the death penalty system inevitably lead to innocent people being executed. Sister Helen is a member of Amnesty International, an honorary member of Murder Victim Families for Reconciliation and the honorary chairperson of Moratorium Campaign, a group that gathers signatures for a world-wide moratorium on the death penalty. She is the public face of the Ministry Against the Death Penalty and continues to counsel inmates on death row and families of murder victims.
Barry C. Scheck is Professor of Law and Emeritus Director of Clinical Education at the Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law. Scheck and his colleague Peter Neufeld co-founded and co-direct the Innocence Project, and pioneered the use of DNA evidence to exonerate the wrongly convicted. Scheck is a partner in the law firm Neufeld, Scheck & Brustin, LLP, specializing in civil rights and constitutional litigation. His many publications include
Actual Innocence: When Justice Goes Wrong And How To Make It Right, with Peter Neufeld and Jim Dwyer. His extensive record of public service includes the presidency of the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers (2004-2005), and service on New York State's Forensic Science Review Board, the National Institute of Justice's Commission on the Future of DNA Evidence, and the American Judicature Society's National Commission on Forensic Science and Public Policy.
Rob Warden is the co-founder of the Registry, as well as executive director emeritus and co-founder of the Center on Wrongful Convictions at Northwestern University School of Law. His investigations into wrongful convictions in Illinois capital cases in the 1980s set a movement in motion that culminated in the abolition of the state's death penalty on March 9, 2011. Mr. Warden is the author or co-author of hundreds of articles and seven books, including four focusing on wrongful convictions. He currently is working on a book on the execution of likely innocent defendants. Mr. Warden has won more than fifty journalism awards. In 2011, he was one of three local recipients of the first annual Chicago Ideas Week Hero Award. In 2014, he was honored by the Innocence Network, of which he was a founding board member, with its first-ever Lifetime Achievement Award for "innumerable contributions... to educating the public about the prevalence of wrongful convictions and other injustices and his passionate personal commitment to exonerating scores of individuals."
Barbara O'Brien, Editor, is a Professor of Law at the Michigan State University College of Law, where she teaches classes in criminal law and procedure. She earned her J.D. at the University of Colorado School of Law, a Ph.D. in social psychology at the University of Michigan, and an A.B. in Economics from Bowdoin College. Her scholarship examines the role of race and other extralegal factors in criminal investigations, trials, and the administration of capital punishment. Her work applies empirical methodology to legal issues, such as identifying predictors of false convictions and understanding prosecutorial decision-making.
Simon Cole, Director and Associate Editor, is a Professor of Criminology, Law and Society at the University of California, Irvine, where he teaches Miscarriages of Justice among other courses. His primary research area is the sociology and history of forensic science, and he has published on forensic science and on miscarriages of justice. Professor Cole is the author of
A History of Fingerprinting and Criminal Identification (Harvard University Press, 2001) and
Truth Machine: The Contentious History of DNA Fingerprinting (University of Chicago Press, 2008, with Michael Lynch, Ruth McNally & Kathleen Jordan).
Catherine Grosso, Contributing Editor, is a Professor of Law at the Michigan State University College of Law. Her scholarship primarily focuses on the administration of capital punishment. This research also examines the role of race in the language of voir dire and the exercise of peremptory strikes during jury selection. She has done several large empirical studies on the influence of race on the administration of capital punishment. Her most recent work, with Barbara O’Brien, has focused on patterns of racial discrimination in capital charging and sentencing decisions in North Carolina. Professor Grosso completed her undergraduate degree at Earlham College and her law degree at the University of Iowa College of Law.
Samuel Gross, Senior Editor and Co-Founder, is the Thomas and Mabel Long Professor of Law Emeritus at the University of Michigan Law School where he taught Evidence, Criminal Procedure and courses on false convictions and exonerations. He has litigated test cases on jury selection in capital trials, racial discrimination in the use of the death penalty, and the constitutionality of executing defendants in the face of a substantial known risk of innocence. Professor Gross has published many works on false convictions and exonerations, eyewitness identification, evidence law, pre-trial settlement and the selection of cases for trial and racial profiling.
Meghan Cousino, Executive Director, NRE Foundation, joined the Registry in 2016 as a special projects researcher, launching the pre-1989 exoneration database. As Executive Director of the NRE Foundation, she now focuses on executing the Foundation's mission of providing the Registry with the necessary financial, operational, and community support to ensure its long-term sustainability. She earned her B.A. from the University of Michigan in 2004 and her J.D. from the University of Michigan Law School in 2007. Prior to joining the Registry, she worked as a corporate attorney at Seyfarth Shaw LLP in Chicago.
Maurice Possley, Senior Researcher, is a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist and author of five non-fiction books. He worked for the Chicago Tribune for 25 years, where he investigated numerous cases of wrongful conviction and wrongful execution as well as systemic problems in the criminal justice system. In 2009, he joined the Northern California Innocence Project to research and co-author a ground-breaking report on prosecutorial misconduct in California. He joined the Registry in 2012, where he is responsible for researching and writing case summaries of all exonerations added to the Registry. In this capacity, he obtains court documents, researches media reports and interviews lawyers and investigators.
Ken Otterbourg, Researcher, joined the Registry in 2018. He worked for the Winston-Salem Journal from 1990-2010, the last five as managing editor. The newspaper's investigation of a wrongful conviction was a principal factor in the creation of the North Carolina Innocence Inquiry Commission in 2006. As a freelance writer since 2010, his work has appeared in The Washington Post Magazine, The New York Times, Fortune, National Geographic and Longreads. At the Registry, he works with Maurice Possley to research and write case summaries of all exonerations added to the Registry.
Jessica Weinstock Paredes, Denise Foderaro Research Scholar, joined the Registry in 2019. She is a former Assistant Public Defender with years of collective experience in litigation and advocacy between the Miami Dade County Public Defender's Office and the Hillsborough County Public Defender's Office. She litigated cases from inception to disposition, managing a high-volume caseload that allowed her to gain expertise in all aspects of criminal defense. She earned her B.A. from Florida State University, and her J.D. from Florida International University. Jessica reviews coding for all three databases and edits all summaries, among a vast array of work that holds the Registry together.
Professor Jeffrey S. Gutman, Special Contributor, of the George Washington University Law School joined the staff of the National Registry in the spring of 2022 as a special contributor to expand the National Registry’s coverage of wrongful conviction compensation issues. Since he co-counseled compensation cases brought in the District of Columbia on behalf of four wrongly convicted men several years ago, Professor Gutman has engaged in an empirical research project designed to determine which of the exonerees listed in the Registry sought compensation and how their claims were resolved. That research has identified many new exonerees who have been added to the Registry and has resulted in three law review articles. Professor Gutman's compensation articles focus on particular states or on general compensation issues of public interest in the NRE's series “Compensation Under the Microscope.” He also presents periodically updated state-by-state compensation data in “Compensation By the Numbers.” All material can be found on the NRE's compensation issues page.
The National Registry of Exonerations is a project of the Newkirk Center for Science & Society at University of California Irvine, the University of Michigan Law School and Michigan State University College of Law. It was founded in 2012 in conjunction with the Center on Wrongful Convictions at Northwestern University School of Law. The Registry provides detailed information about every known exoneration in the United States since 1989—cases in which a person was wrongly convicted of a crime and later cleared of all the charges based on new evidence of innocence. The Registry also maintains a more limited database of known exonerations prior to 1989.
We welcome new information from any source about exonerations already on our list and about cases not in the Registry that might be exonerations.