In the early morning of May 11, 1978, Lawrence Lionberg and Carol Schmal were abducted from a Clark filling station where Lionberg worked in the mostly white Chicago suburb of Homewood, Illinois. The bodies of the recently engaged white couple were found the next day in an abandoned townhouse in mostly black East Chicago Heights (now Ford Heights). Both victims had been shot, and Schmal had been gang-raped. A false tip from a man named Charles McCraney, who lived near the murder scene, led to the arrest of four African Americans — Verneal Jimerson
, Dennis Williams
, Kenneth Adams
, Willie Rainge
. In addition, Paula Gray — a mildly retarded 17-year-old — was brought in for questioning.
On May 16, after being held without legal counsel for two days by Cook County Sheriff’s officers and prosecutors, Gray confessed to the grand jury that she held a disposable cigarette lighter burning while Adams, Rainge, Jimerson, and Williams raped Schmal seven times. She also stated that she saw Williams shoot both victims with a .38-caliber pistol.
A month later, on June 19, Gray recanted her story at a preliminary hearing, claiming that she had been drugged and that the police walked her around the crime scene and told her what to say. Since Jimerson was only implicated by Gray’s recanted testimony, the charges against him were dismissed. However, Gray herself was charged with murder and perjury and brought to trial jointly with the three remaining male defendants — Adams, Rainge, and Williams.
The trial was conducted before two juries — one for the men, the other for Gray. All four were convicted. Williams was sentenced to death, Rainge to life, Adams to 75 years and Gray to 50 years. The convictions initially were affirmed on appeal, but Williams and Rainge won new trials in 1982 because the lawyer who represented them at trial also represented Gray.
Prosecutors then made a deal with Gray under which she would be released in exchange for testifying against Williams and Rainge at their retrial. As part of the deal, Gray also agreed to testify against Jimerson, who was then charged, convicted, and sentenced to death in 1985. Two years later, on the basis of Gray’s testimony and that of a jailhouse informant, Williams and Rainge were convicted a second time. Williams again was sentenced to death, and Rainge to life.
In 1995, the Illinois Supreme Court unanimously reversed Jimerson’s conviction and ordered a new trial due to witness perjury. In 1996, DNA testing exonerated all five defendants and led to the arrests and convictions of the three actual culprits; a fourth was deceased. Ultimately, defense attorneys learned that within a week of the crime, a witness told police who the real perpetrators were, but the report wasn't disclosed to the defense.
In 1999, Cook County settled lawsuits filed by the innocent men — known as the “Ford Heights Four” — for $36 million, the largest civil rights payment in U.S. history. On November 14, 2002, Paula Gray receives a pardon based on innocence from Governor George Ryan. On December 18, 2008, the Cook County Board settled the last remaining civil lawsuit and awarded Gray $4 million.
— Center on Wrongful Convictions