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Acquisitions and Collection Development Glossary

Glossary, terms of art, acronyms and initialisms used in Acquisitions Services and Collection Development (and elsewhere). Updated 9/22/09.  Please contact Diane Fichter with additions or corrections.



  • AALL: American Association of Law Libraries
  • ABA: American Bar Association
  • Account: with help from Wikipedia: A vendor’s formal record of the debits and credits relating to the customer named at the head of the ledger. We deal with accounts within the university and with accounts from vendors outside the university. U of M Financial Operations maintains detailed accounts for the entire campus, including our library funds, and we maintain the funds in Millennium. For vendors outside the university, the vendors maintain either a single account or a number of accounts for us—depending on the way they set up their systems. We keep track of the account numbers assigned by our vendors in our order, checkin and vendor records in Millennium. The vendor’s primary identifier for those with whom they do business is the customer’s account number. When corresponding with our vendors, one of the first pieces of information they request is our account number.
  • Accounts Payable: A University of Michigan Business and Finance unit. From its web site: “The Accounts Payable department is a unit within Procurement Services. Accounts Payable is responsible for processing the payment of goods and services to vendors in compliance with U-M standard practices, external regulations and requirements. The payment processes that are administered by Payables include: Purchasing Cards, Travel and Business Hosting Expense Reports, Non-Purchase Order Payments, Purchase Order Payments and eBilling.” We send our invoice payments via vencher upload to Accounts Payable so that the checks can be written and sent out to our vendors in US Mail (or by other special arrangement).
  • Acquisitions Services:  The unit name for acquisitions activities related to obtaining library materials (e.g., ordering, receiving, claiming, paying and financial record keeping) are carried out.
  • Added copy:  Our definition: Additional ordered copy of an item that we already have in the MLaw Catalog, which is intended to augment the collection.
    • Example: We have many added copies of the “A uniform system of citation” [the Blue book.]
  • Added entry:  From “An entry, additional to the main entry, by which an item is represented in a catalog; a secondary entry. Added entries provide additional access to a bibliographic record from names and/or titles having various relationships to a work. Added entries are made for persons, corporate bodies, and meetings having some form of responsibility for the creation of the work, including intellectual and publishing responsibilities.”
    • Example: For this edited work, the added entry is Wright, Susan, 1939- : TITLE Preventing a biological arms race / edited by Susan Wright. ADD AUTHOR Wright, Susan, 1939- .
  • ALI-ABA:  (American Law Institute – American Bar Association) From their web site: “ALI-ABA has been the recognized leader in continuing professional education in the United States for over 60 years. In 1947, the American Bar Association, the largest professional organization for lawyers in the world, asked the American Law Institute, an influential and highly respected law-reform organization, to develop the first national program of post-admission legal education.”
  • Approval Plan:  A detailed written agreement between a library and a vendor, describing the types and scope of newly published materials (chiefly monographic) the library wants the vendor to acquire and send automatically—without the library’s having to select and order each one on a title-by-title basis. The library may return materials received that are not suitable for their collection---and that’s where the word “approval” comes in. Approval Plans typically include the library’s lists of preferred or excluded publishers; countries of publication covered; instructions on desired and excluded subjects;, supplying paperback vs. hardcover editions; volumes published in series; cost limits; audience; desired formats, etc. In turn, the vendor spells out what services they provide (countries of publication and publishers covered; discounts offered; accepted percentage of returned materials, etc.). Approval Plan vendors are often fairly large booksellers serving a particular library market. The Law Library has approval plans with:
    • Casalini Libri (for Italy; Malta; [Spain & Portugal soon]; San Marino); Vatican
    • Coutts Library Services (for Central and Western Europe minus Italy and the German Cultural Area);
    • Harrassowitz (for the German Cultural Area—Germany, Austria and German-speaking Switzerland);
    • Lindsay and Croft (for the UK);
    • YBP (for the US and Canada);
    • Yuhikaku (Japan).
  • Approve for payment:  (or authorize payment) Procedure to certify the legitimacy of charges on a new/unpaid invoice, comparing the elements (e.g., account #; send-to and bill-to address; vendor; charges including sales tax, shipping and handling; number of copies; subscription period; etc.) to our order and checkin records, to determine if the invoice correctly reflects the terms of our order. If the elements are correct, we approve the invoice by writing on the invoice: the order number, our initials, and today’s date. If any of the invoice elements are incorrect, we contact the vendor to resolve the situation. The approved invoice is then passed to our Account Clerk Senior for further processing.
  • Audit:  From Wikipedia: “… Documentation of detailed accounting transactions supporting summary ledger entries. This documentation may be on paper or electronic records.”
  • Audit requirements:  (in relation to accounting workflow for payment of library materials in the Law Library) From the University’s SPG SECTION: Fiscal Responsibilities Number: 500.1 Internal Controls and Management Responsibilities: “All managers, from the unit level to the President of the University, should use internal controls to help assure that units operate according to a plan. The methods used are: policies, procedures, organizational structures and physical barriers. Most internal controls can be classified as preventive or detective. Preventive controls are designed to discourage errors or irregularities (e.g., requiring supervisory sign-off before an item is purchased). Detective controls are designed to identify an error or irregularity after it has occurred (e.g., reconciling financial statements of activity to ensure all charges are appropriate and correct). The existence of detective controls can also serve to prevent irregularities.” Internal Controls in Acquisitions Services require that staff who approve invoices for payment cannot process the same invoice(s) for payment. To comply with audit requirements, we must have at least one staff member who approves an invoice for payment, and another who processes the invoice for payment.
  • Authorize payment: – See “Approve for Payment”.

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  • B
  • Bank draft in a foreign currency:  Our definition: A check in a currency other than US dollars, guaranteed by a bank. We were occasionally required to pay a vendor with a bank draft in a foreign currency when the vendor would not accept payment by credit card or in US dollars. It required a special step in the payment process, and now that credit cards are so widely accepted, we do not have any orders at present for which we must pay by a bank draft in a foreign currency.
  • Bank wire: (or bank wire transfer) -- see Wire transfer
  • Bib: -- see Bibliographic record
  • Bibliographic format:  -- see Material type
  • Bibliographic record: (Bib. record) A record type in Millennium for describing library materials by author; title; imprint; series and edition statements; ISBN/ISSN etc.; and which may or may not be cataloged.
  • Bibliographic utility:  From the web site of the Society of American Archivists: “An organization that maintains a database of bibliographic descriptions for use by organizations and individuals for purposes of access, cataloging, circulation, and management.” The bibliographic utility to which the Law Library maintains its membership is WorldCat.
  • Bin:  A file in Acquisitions Services for invoices we cannot pay right away due to: non receipt of the material; receipt of defective copy while we await receipt of a perfect replacement; vendor error on the invoice while we await instructions for correction; awaiting a Ref. Dept. decision, etc. The bin resides in the front of the top drawer of Order File cabinet. We check the invoices in the bin every couple of weeks to ensure we receive what we need in order to pay the invoice, or cancel the invoice.
  • BNA:  Bureau of National Affairs, a publisher
  • Book series:  -- see Numbered [monographic] series -- or see Unnumbered series
  • Brief bib.:  (Brief bibliographic record) A bibliographic record that has not been cataloged, and which usually contains "bare bones" data such as: author; title; imprint; series statement; ISBN/ISSN. Brief bibs. are temporary and typically used for materials that are "on order." Once the order has been received and sent to Cataloging Services, a librarian or her designates catalog the material; the brief bib. is deleted and the new cataloged bib. is added. Another use of brief bibs. is for materials the library ordered but subsequently decided not to add to the collection; these bibs. are usually suppressed from public display.
  • Budget:  From “An itemized allotment of funds… The total sum of money set aside or needed for a purpose.” In the Law Library, the allotment of funds for library materials is called the ‘books budget.”
  • Bus Ad:  The Univ. of Michigan Business Administration Library, also known as the Kresge Business Administration Library.

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  • CCH:    A publisher, formerly known as Commerce Clearing House.
  • CSDirect:   The name of the interactive web site operated by III for customer service activities.  It provides information on documentation, training, release updates and downloads, support, professional services, sales, and allows us to initiate service requests and to track the status of our service requests.
  • Call number    From   “A number consisting of three parts: The call number is printed on the label affixed to a bibliographic item, so that the item can be shelved and found. The call number represents the shelf location of the item in the library's collections. It is referred to as the call number because it can be used to request or call for a particular item.”
  • Catalog  (or catalogue)
    • Noun    With help from WikipediaA library catalog (or library catalogue) is a register of all bibliographic items found in a library. A bibliographic item can be any information entity (e.g., books, computer files, microform, etc.), that is considered library material, or is linked from the catalog (e.g., a web page) as far as it is relevant to the catalog and to the library patrons.
    • Verb   Based on  Describe and classify bibliographic items found in a library according to a categorical system.
  • Cease publication      Stop publishing; permanently discontinue publication of a continuation.
  • Cease pursuit   The decision made by the selector for Acquisitions and Continuations to stop claiming an out-of-date continuation title whose publication status is ambiguous, despite numerous claims.  We close out our order and stop expecting new issues but we do not cancel our order.  If the title starts to be published once again, we will reopen our order and checkin records with its original claim code.
  • Check in         The process of recording receipt of a continuation issue/volume/year/part, etc. in a Millennium checkin record/card, including application of the library property stamp, routing and label with the call number.
  • Checkin box      A unit of the Millennium checkin card used to record the expected date/receipt/binding/claiming status of individual issues/parts of a continuation, including captions for chronology e.g., (month, day and year) and enumeration (e.g., volume and number).
    • Examples:  “v. 3 no. 1 JUN 2009 ARRIVED 06-24-09;”   or “2008/2009 EXPECTED 08-30-09;”   or  “v. 34 no. 3 SPR 2009 CLAIM1 07-30-09”.
  • Checkin card     A part of the Millennium checkin record used to designate the receipt/binding/claiming status of issues/parts of a continuation, as well as the parameters that allow the set up of the card to: predict receipt; record caption terms; and to establish patterns for claiming and binding.
  • Checkin record     The Millennium record type used to summarize our holdings for continuations, list call number/location, note instructions for recording, retention, routing, binding, claiming, etc.  It also includes the checkin card, and the parameters of the card in which the captions for chronology (e.g., month, day and year) and enumeration (e.g., volume and number), as well as binding and claiming specifications.
  • Claim   (or claim of non-receipt)      A request for materials from our vendor that we expected to arrive automatically by a particular date—but which have not yet arrived.  The library’s communication with the vendor requesting the lacking item is called a “claim.”  For subscriptions, we claim individual issues that we expected to receive--but did not receive.  Vendors have varying policies regarding acceptance of claims of non-receipt (meaning the vendor supplies a replacement free of charge).  For a journal published monthly, for example, a vendor may allow a period of three to six months between the actual publication of an issue or volume, and the date the library claimed it.  If the claim date is within the approved time period, the vendor will arrange to have a replacement copy sent out at no additional charge.  When the period expires, however, vendors will not replace the missing issue at no charge. Claiming is done by sending claim forms and letters in the mail, faxing, emailing, and phoning, or by using a vendor’s interactive web site.
  • Claim code     Numerical designations 0-3 assigned by the Reference Librarians  at the time of selection (on the pre-order search form) to provide instructions for Acquisitions and Continuations on how many times, if any, we claim missing issues/volume/years of continuations.  The codes are based on the relevant importance of the title in the collection, in conjunction with the actual availability of the material, and we note the codes in the individual checkin records. The numerical designations begin with 0, which is ‘do not claim’ and go up through 3, which is “claim 3 times and order as microform or photocopy as a last resort.”
    • Examples: “Circular (Library of Congress.  Copyright Office” is claim code 0;  
      “Weekly compilation of Presidential documents” is claim code 1;
      “Journal of technology law & policy” is claim code 2;
      “Journal of dispute resolution” is claim code 3.
  • Classification system   From “A system of arranging materials in the library, usually through the use of call numbers and subject headings. Two common classification systems are the Dewey Decimal System, usually used in public libraries, and the Library of Congress Classification System, usually used in academic libraries.”  The Law Library uses the Library of Congress classification system.
  • Classify      The intellectual process used to assign a call number to library material.
  • Close an entry (bibliographic entry)     The process of editing the bib. record when we learn that a continuation title for which we have an active order has ceased publication. The “Ceased Publication Notification” form is sent to Cataloging.  The catalog librarian will “close the entry” by appending an end date to the imprint field, and filling in the end date in the Vol/Dates field—both in the bib. record—showing the beginning and end dates of publication.
    • Example:  “National Jewish law review” ceased publication with vol. 5, and the catalog librarian “closed the entry”-- IMPRINT New York, N.Y. : National Jewish Law Review 1986-1991;  VOL/DATES Vol. 1 (1986)-v. 5 (1990-91).
  • Collection Development Policy     Formal written statement of the Law Library’s policy describing the scope and types of materials the Law Library collects for all jurisdictions in the world.
  • Contact record    Record type in ERM used to hold vendor’s addresses, phone numbers, email addresses, fax numbers, etc.
  • Continuation      A publication that is issued as parts/volumes/issues/supplementation over a period of time, bearing numerical or other sequential designation, and which may or may not have a predetermined end.
    • Examples include journals; yearbooks; newspapers; supplemented treatises and casebooks; multi-volume works in progress; integrating resources; and numbered (monographic) series.
  • Customer service     From Wikipedia, “Customer service is a series of activities designed to enhance the level of customer satisfaction – that is, the feeling that a product or service has met the customer expectation.”   Answering inquiries regarding placing, claiming, and paying for orders are common examples of customer service assistance offered to libraries by vendors and publishers.
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  • Data load     The transfer of records from an outside source to a
    local database (or from one source to another).
    • Example: Loading the monthly Serials Solutions records.
  • Days before claim    From III’s manual:   “The number of days after the Expected date before Millennium Serials [checkin record] considers the issue late and prompts you to claim it.
    • For example, an issue expected on 06-15-99 with a Days before claim value of "30" will display as "LATE" on 07-15-99. This number defaults to one and one-half times the frequency of a serial that is published more often than six times a year, and one-half the frequency of a serial that is published fewer than six times a year. For example, a monthly serial would have a Days before claim default of 45, while a semiannual would have a default value of 91 (365/2 * 1/2 = 91.25).”
  • Depository   library  (and Depository Agreement)   According to Collins Essential English Dictionary, 2nd ed.  “A place where something is deposited, as for storage or safekeeping; a repository.”    Organizations who make arrangements with libraries to act as a repository for some of the organization’s publications and who send certain publications to the library free of charge have what we call a “depository agreement.”  Often, the agreement includes the organization’s rules for what the library can receive “on depository” and what the library can and cannot do with the organization’s publications.  The Law Library is a selective “depository library” for the U.S. Govt. Printing Office; Office for Official Publications of the European Union; and the International Maritime Organization.
  • Distributor      One or more companies that have a formal agreement with a publisher to disseminate its publications to those who order them—acting as a “middle-man” between the publisher and their customers. Some publishers have multiple distributors in foreign jurisdictions or in specialty markets. Typical services provided by the distributor include general “customer service” activities---accepting and filling orders and payments; dealing with claims of non-receipt; tracking inventory; corresponding with those who order the publications regarding order or payment status; accepting returns; and warehousing.
    • Example: National Book Network distributes for hundreds of publishers in North America.
  • Divisional library  (System Library at the University of Michigan)  From University Library’s web site: ”A system library within the University Library.”  Some examples include: Art, Architecture and Engineering Library; Fine Arts Library; Map Library; Museums Library; Music Library; Public Health Library and Informatics; Shapiro Undergraduate Library; Social Work Library; and the Taubman Medical Library.
    • The Law Library is an independent library at the University of Michigan.
  • Dup (or duplicate)      An extra copy of a publication received (usually sent in error) that was not specifically ordered for the collection. We keep duplicates for several months then discard them after confirming we do not need them.
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    E-Chairs     The group of U of M librarians who are in charge of electronic resources for their respective libraries and/or units.  They meet on a monthly basis [usually at the University Library] to discuss various topics related to electronic resources, including

    • “Package Deals” with publishers [and the practical affects on the libraries, procedures, etc.];
    • Consortial arrangements to purchase electronic resources;
    • Sharing cost among other U of M libraries for electronic resources;
    • Contracts with publishers for electronic resources, including renewal of contracts;
    • Evaluation of new and existing electronic resources;
    • Changes to existing electronic resources;
    • Usage statistics;
    • Problems with publishers, etc.

    EDI  --   see Electronic Data Interchange

    ERM  (Electronic Resource Management)  Name of the III module we maintain as part of our ILS, to manage electronic resources    From III’s web site: Electronic Resource Management gives your patrons access to e-journals and more through Innovative's discovery tools and provides full administration capabilities for staff—including the most complete usage gathering and cost reporting on the market  Libraries can use Electronic Resource Management as a stand-alone solution or as an integrated module of the Millennium ILS. As a stand-alone system, libraries can enjoy the benefits of ERM's ability to maintain resources, track licenses, and manage coverage data.”

    Electronic Data Interchange  (EDI)      From Wikipedia: “ … a structured transmission of data between organizations by electronic means. It is used to transfer electronic documents from one computer system to another (i.e., from one trading partner to another trading partner).”  At the Law Library, we use EDI for loading MARC and non-MARC records and data files, and for transmitting new orders to vendors.

    Electronic resource    From, “According to AACR2, 2005 Update, an electronic resource is: "Material (data and/or program(s)) encoded for manipulation by a computerized device. This material may require the use of a peripheral directly connected to a computerized device (e.g., CD-ROM drive) or a connection to a computer network (e.g., the Internet)." This definition does not include electronic resources that do not require the use of a computer, for example, music compact discs and videodiscs.”

    Enclosure    An extra copy of an invoice that has been authorized for payment that is sent to the vendor along with our payment.  If we amend the total to be paid, or if the invoice lacks an “invoice number,” we often use enclosures.

    Encumbrance    According to Wikipedia---“A management tool used to reflect commitments in the accounting system and attempt to prevent overspending. Encumbrances allow organizations to recognize future commitments of resources prior to an actual expenditure.”  The Law Library’s accounting system includes: budget figures (dollar amount of what we have to spend); encumbrances (dollar amount we expect to pay in the future); and expenditures (dollar amount paid).   For practical applications in the Law Library, we “encumber” money at the fund level on a continuing basis (at the start of each new fiscal year) for established serials and other continuations, as we expect to pay for them each year (until we cancel or they cease or complete publication).  We also encumber money on a title-by-title basis at the fund level when we place new orders, including orders for monographs.  At the beginning of each new fiscal year, we “carry over” (transfer) the encumbrances for new orders that have not yet been paid for the previous year. As items are paid, the relevant encumbrance figure is deleted in our accounting system, and the amount paid is posted as an expenditure.

    Enhancement request     Freely adapted from CSDirect   A detailed and specific suggestion submitted to III for functionality that the library would like to see added to Millennium. Enhancement suggestions submitted directly to Innovative are routed to the appropriate Product Manager for review. Upon submission, the requestor receives an automated email confirmation.

    • N.B.   This is a separate process from the IUG Enhancements Process, where enhancement suggestions are submitted and voted on by the IUG members.  See also “IUG Enhancement request.”

    Entry  --  See Main entry   and   Added entry

    Eresoutages   <>  The Law Library’s email address patrons (and/or staff) use to report service outages in electronic resources.  The group currently includes: KC, SJ and DF.  The outages are resolved by Acquisitions Services (and sometimes Electronic & Systems Services)  working with the vendor to restore service.  Progress and final resolution of the outages are communicated among the email group members.

    Exchange     An agreement in writing between two institutions to automatically supply certain publications to one another, without charge.  Our exchange partners usually include institutions outside the Western Hemisphere and almost always involve materials that are not available on the market.  We have exchanges with many institutions for our “Michigan Law Review” (“MLR”) in exchange for materials that would be otherwise unavailable to us.

    Expenditure   Courtesy of : “An expense. That which is expended or paid out.”

    External funds   From III   “On the Innovative system, sources of money become External Funds. Outside sources of money (External Funds) are translated into the library's Fund Codes. Fund Codes are the library's internal breakdown of the lump sums which make up the budget.” 

    • Examples:  “Books;” “SFP;” and gift “small” funds.

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    Fake standing order    [or Fake S.O.]     An order for a continuation, or for supplements to a student edition or casebook, typically published annually or less frequently, which specifies that each issue/volume/year published is wanted ---but the vendor will not record or service standing orders.  We set up a “tickler” in Millennium to remind us to order the item periodically.  (Some vendors will handle standing orders for some types of publications but not others.  Other vendors will not handle standing orders for anything.)  Billing is done at the time of shipment (or in advance of shipment).

    Fake subscription      An order for a continuation that is typically published twice a year or more frequently which specifies that each issue/volume/part published is wanted---but the vendor will not accept subscription orders (or will accept subscription orders but will not automatically renew the subscription each year). We set up a “tickler” in Millennium to remind us to order the item, or renew the subscription, periodically.  (Some vendors will handle subscriptions, some will not, and some will handle subscriptions but won’t renew them unless we ask them to each year.)  Billing the library is done at the time of shipment (or in advance of shipment.

    Fake supp s/o   [or Fake supplement standing order]      An order for supplements typically published annually or less frequently which specifies that each one published is wanted ---but the vendor will not record or service standing orders to these particular supplements.  We have a procedure in place to order the new supplements periodically.  (Some vendors will handle standing orders for supplements to some types of material but not others.  Other vendors will not handle standing orders for any supplements.)  Billing is done at the time of shipment (or in advance of shipment).

    • Example: supplements to “Native American natural resources law: cases and materials” / Judith V. Royster, Michael C. Blumm.

    Festschrift  (plural, Festschriften)   From Wikipedia “…a book honoring a respected academic and presented during his or her lifetime. The term, borrowed from German, could be translated as ‘celebration publication or celebratory (piece of) writing.’ A comparable book presented posthumously is called a Gedenkschrift (memorial publication).  A Festschrift contains original contributions by the honored academic's close colleagues, often including his or her former doctoral students. It is typically published on the occasion of the honoree's retirement, sixtieth or sixty-fifth birthday, or other notable career anniversary… Since no English term for such a book has been established, the German word Festschrift is widely used internationally. However, Festschriften are often titled something like Essays in Honour of... or Essays Presented to...”

    Financial Operations (or FinOps)   A department in the University of Michigan’s Business and Finance office.  Financial Operations handles financial record keeping, financial reporting, payroll, and student loans.

    Firm order     An order for any publication (whether continuation or not) that is a ‘one-time order.’   Used for orders for monographs, replacement orders for missing journal issues, main works of treatises, case books, etc.  (All the vendors we use handle firm orders.)

    Fiscal year    With help from Wikipedia: A twelve-month period for which an organization plans the use of its funds.  The fiscal year for the Law Library’s Materials (a.k.a. “Books”) Budget is July 1 through June 30.

    Fixed-length field  (in Millennium)    >From III Manual: “Each fixed-length field contains one of the following: 1. a code chosen from a set of valid codes; 2.  a date; 3. a monetary amount.”

    Foreign currency Adapted from Wikipedia:  In economics, the term can refer either to a particular foreign currency, for example the British Pound, or to the coins and banknotes of a particular foreign currency, which comprise the physical aspects of a nation’s money supply

    Format   --  see  Material type (bibliographic format)   or  Physical format (format type)

    Frequency (or frequency of publication)   The time period between publication of successive  issues/parts of a continuation title. Common examples are daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, biannual and annual.  Frequency may also be irregular—with no discernable pattern.

    Fund    Noun   Moneys our accounting system is designed to facilitate detailed record keeping for the purchase of library materials.  The structure of our funds takes into account the main fund from which the moneys originate, plus the country of publication, bibliographic format and physical format (material type).

    Fund code     From III  “On the Innovative system, outside sources of money (External Funds) are translated into the library's Fund Codes. Fund Codes are the library's internal breakdown of the lump sums which make up the budget.”  In the Law Library, our fund codes are structured to include the external fund, geographic location of publication, physical format and material type.

    • Example “bkups” is—bk  Books (external fund); u United States (geographic place of publication); p  paper (physical format); s  serial (material type).  The fund “bkups” is often used for purchasing library subscriptions in print format, published in the United States.

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    GOBI       The name of the interactive web site operated by YBP Library Services and Lindsay and Croft that allows us access to our approval profiles and publisher lists, and gives us the ability to search and order individual titles, to run reports, and to determine whether or not a particular title will, or will not, come to us on our approval plans.  The Access to GOBI requires a username and password which the Acquisitions Unit Head manages.

    General Library  --  see University Library

    Gift        Materials from various sources which arrive at no charge.  We order some items that are gifts, and others arrive unsolicited.  We keep some of the items, and discard others. “Gifts” can be monographs or serials and other continuations.  Publishers and vendors decide when one library will receive a certain title as a gift (perhaps due to the library’s status and/or location), while another library will be required to pay for the same ordered item. To some extent, we may not know in advance of receipt that an ordered item will, or will not, be sent as a gift.

    • Example: we receive publications from ICLE as gifts.

    Graduate Library --  see  University Library

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    HHGL  --  see  University Library

    Harlan Hatcher Graduate Library  --  see University Library

    Holdings record    From III’s manual, “Millennium Serials allows you to store and edit a serial's holdings information in [the checkin records]:


    IALL    International Association of Law Libraries     From their web site: “The International Association of Law Libraries (IALL) is a worldwide, cooperative non-profit organization of librarians, libraries, and other persons and institutions concerned with the acquisition, dissemination and use of legal information from sources other than their own jurisdictions.”

    III  (Innovative Interfaces Incorporated)   The company name of the web-based Integrated Library System the Law Library maintains.

    ILS  (or Integrated Library System)  From Wikipedia  “An integrated library system (ILS), also known as a library management system (LMS) is an enterprise resource planning system for a library, used to track items owned, orders made, bills paid, and patrons who have borrowed.”    Our ILS is III.

    IPP   --  see In-process pull

    IUG      Innovative Interfaces Inc.Users Group   From the CSDirect web site: “Founded in 1991, the IUG is an international organization made up of libraries who use Innovative Interfaces, Inc. software. It is an independent, self-governed, organization with thousands of members worldwide and dozens of regional, country, local and special interest groups.”  The Law Library participates as a member of IUG.

    IUG enhancement request (or IUG enhancement process)   From IUG web site: “Enhancement suggestions are submitted and voted on by the IUG members.  The IUG plays a vital role in the decision making process to provide enhancements to the Millennium/INNOPAC system. Through this cooperative process, IUG members make suggestions, vote for system enhancements, and are afforded a unified voice for improving the system functionality.”

    • N.B.  This is a separate process from the Enhancement Request sent directly to III. See also “Enhancement request.”

    Imprint      From Wikipedia: "…a brand name under which a work is published. One single publishing company may have multiple imprints; the different imprints are used by the publisher to market the work to different demographic consumer segments.  In some cases, the diversity results from the takeover of smaller publishers (or parts of their business) by a larger company. This usage of the word has evolved from the old practice of calling the printing of publisher's name at the bottom of publication's title page an imprint.”

    • Example:  Foundation Press is an imprint of West Group, a publisher

    In-Process Pull  (or IPP) 
    1. The form submitted by a patron at the Circ. Desk, or sent by using the Request feature in the catalog, for material that is “in process;”;
    2. The procedure we use to fill patron requests for materials that are “in process”—i.e.

    • on order and not yet received;
    • received but not yet cataloged;
    • cataloged but not yet on the shelf.

    The patron requests the material through the Circ. Desk, and the Circ. Desk staff work with Acquisitions and Cataloging to:

    • fill the request by locating the material and placing it on the Hold Shelf for the patron;  or
    • obtain information on why the request cannot be filled and to inform the patron accordingly.

    Incomplete separate  (or multi-volume work in progress)    A publication issued in parts bearing numerical or chronological designations which has a beginning and a predetermined end.  Example: “The papers of James Madison: presidential series.”

    • N.B.  We have also included loose-leafs, at times.

    Innovative Interfaces Inc.  --   see  III

    Integrating resource     Defined by OCLC as "a bibliographic resource that is added to or changed by means of updates that do not remain discrete and are integrated into the whole. Integrating resources can be finite or continuing.”

    • Examples of integrating resources include loose-leafs (e.g., “CCH federal tax service”) and web sites (e.g., “HeinOnline”) that receive regular updates. 

    Invoice (or bill)  Noun  From University of Michigan Procurement web site:  “A detailed list of goods shipped, or services rendered, with an account of all costs.”

    Issue     From  “Something that is printed or published and distributed, esp. a given number of a periodical.  

    • Example: Vol. 107 no. 8 is an issue number of “Michigan law review.”

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    JE  (or Journal Entry)    From Wikipedia: an accounting term--“Journal Entries are usually entered using a separate module from accounts payable, which typically has its own subledger that indirectly affects the general ledger; journal entries directly change the account balances on the general ledger.”   At the University of Michigan, we use journal entries as intrauniversity financial transactions to transfer funds from one account to another.

    Jobber or Bookseller   Adapted from Merriam Webster Online Dictionary:  A wholesaler who handles firm orders and/or standing orders, for items published by any number of publishers, and who sells only to retailers or institutions. Jobbers or Booksellers act as a “middle man” between the library and publisher, or the library and distributor. The jobber or bookseller typically ships and bills the material, item by item, from its own offices to the library. 

    • Example:  Midwest Library Service.

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    Kresge Business  Administration Library  --  see  Bus Ad

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    L&C  --  see  Lindsay and Croft

    Lapsed subscription   --   see Subscription stoppage

    Lexcalibur        The local name of the Law Library’s online catalog, from 1991 – approx. 2008. 

    Lexis   (or LexisNexis) From LexisNexis web site: “[Electronic] Access to the most expansive set of legal, news, business, analytical sources and public records content available to legal professionals.”  The Law Library maintains a subscription.

    LexisNexis      From LexisNexis web site: A publisher encompassing Butterworths® in the United Kingdom, Canada, the Asia-Pacific region; Les Editions du Juris Classeur in France; Martindale-Hubbell® and Matthew Bender®.

    Library Has     A variable-length field in the checkin record.  From III’s manual  “Summary (bound) holdings statement. This field can be edited manually or it can be automatically updated as bound volumes are checked in as they return from the bindery.”

    Library Standing Order Plan   --   see Package Plan

    License record    Record type in ERM used to categorize and store licensing elements of electronic resources.

    Lindsay and Croft  (or L&C)   The name of a bookseller in the UK which is affiliated with YBP.  We maintain an approval plan for books published in the United Kingdom with Lindsay and Croft, and the materials they handle are included in GOBI.

    Locked range   “S-110 D  Checklist storage” --the room next to the office of the Head of Continuations and Serials Services, where incomplete bundles of collected continuations are stored until they can be sent for binding, and where continuation duplicates are shelved.  The box status in checkin cards for materials stored in the Locked Range is “Removed.”  Patrons who wish to use materials in the Locked Range submit an In Process Pull request at the Circ. Desk.  The staff in Continuations pulls the material for the Circ. Desk staff, and they, in turn, make it available to the patron.

    Loose-leaf  or loose-leaf service (or integrating resource “service”)      Definition from Boston College Law Library: “A form of publication that is periodically updated with materials which are filed in a notebook or binder to ensure that the contents are as current as possible. The updates are usually provided on a weekly, bi-weekly or monthly basis. Looseleaf services bring together into a single secondary source most of the important information from a variety of primary sources on a particular topic or field of law. The major publishers of looseleaf services in the U.S. are Bureau of National Affairs (BNA), Commerce Clearing House (CCH), Lexis Legal Publishing/Matthew Bender and Research Institute of America (RIA).”

    • Example: “New York civil practice. CPLR, 2d”.

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    MLaw Catalog    The name of the Law Library’s online catalog, starting from 2009..

    MOF  (or Multiple order form)     Prior to loading Lexcalibur and Millennium, Acquisitions Services used paper order forms consisting of several copies, upon which we typed the order date, bibliographic information, number of copies wanted, vendor’s name, cost, and any special notes to the vendor (e.g. “Want hardcover”).  We sent one copy of the MOF to the vendor, and filed the other copies in various ways in various files.  When the ordered material arrived, we recorded the date received, and the payment, and kept certain parts of the MOF for our file.

    M-Pathways  --   see Wolverine Access

    Main entry     From  “The primary access point to a bibliographic record.” 

    • Examples of main entries are author’s name(s) and titles.  Examples:  the main entry for this work is Dershem, Larry D.: MAIN ENTRY Dershem, Larry D., TITLE  California legal research handbook / by Larry D. Dershem.  When there is no author (as in this case of an edited work), the title becomes the main entry: TITLE Preventing a biological arms race / edited by Susan Wright.

    Market     From Wikipedia:  “A market is any one of a variety of different systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby persons trade, and goods and services are exchanged, forming part of the economy. It is an arrangement that allows buyers and sellers to exchange things… In mainstream economics, the concept of a market is any structure that allows buyers and sellers to exchange any type of goods, services and information. The exchange of goods or services for money is a transaction. Market participants consist of all the buyers and sellers of a good who influence its price.”

    • Example:  the series “Studi Urbinate di Scienze Giuridiche, Politiche ed Economiche” is excluded on our Casalini Libri approval profile because the title is not available on the market—meaning the series must be requested from the publisher directly by the library.

    Material type    (or bibliographic format)    

    • A fixed-length field in Millennium bib. records to categorize the bibliographic format of the material:  books; serials; and integrating resources (also known as “loose-leafs”).  
    • Also used in Law Library fund codes for financial reporting on encumbrances and expenditures for books, serials and integrating resources.
    • Example: the material type in the bib. record for “A Bluebook survival guide for students, editors, instructors, and practitioners : a learning tool for the sixteenth edition of the Bluebook” / J. Reid Mowrer is ‘m’ (monograph).  The fund code we used for payment in the order record is ‘bkupm’ – the ‘m’ being ‘monograph.’

    Membership      A method of library acquisition offered by an organization that offers its publications as a benefit of acceptance and annual payment of dues (or application, if free).  The organization sets the terms on which publications are received as a benefit of membership.

    • Example: We maintain an institutional membership in the American Society for Legal History and receive subscriptions to “ASLH newsletter” and “Law and history review” for our annual membership dues of $100.00.

    Midwest     Midwest Library Service, a vendor we use often for books published in North America.

    Millennium    The name (since 2000) of the Innovative Interfaces Inc. (III) Integrated Library System (ILS) we use.

    Monograph    From Wikipedia ”… is a work of writing upon a single subject…  It is by definition a single document that forms a complete text in itself… Normally it is used for a work intended to be a complete and detailed exposition of a substantial subject at a level more advanced than that of a textbook… Librarians consider a monograph to be a nonserial publication complete in one volume or a finite number of volumes. Thus it differs from a serial publication such as a magazine, journal or newspaper.

    • Example:  “Black’s law dictionary.  7th edition”

    Monographic series   --  see Numbered series -- or   Unnumbered series

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    NOP  -- see  Not our publication 

    NYP  --see   Not yet published

    Non-PO voucher    Freely adapted from University of Michigan Procurement Service’s web site glossary:  An M-Pathways document created online matching a supplier’s invoice to a department’s specified chart-field combinations, used as a payment method.  The voucher defines how and when the supplier will receive payment. Non-PO vouchers are used for payments to facilitate the purchase of items for the Law Library’s collection when a supplier will not accept a P-Card.

    Not our publication (NOP) A vendor status report (sent in response to an order) meaning they cannot handle our order and that we must reorder elsewhere. It usually leads to our researching the order and finding the actual publisher is different from that in our original information.

    Not yet published   (NYP)    The state of a book or other library material before being published.

    Numbered series   (or numbered book series or numbered monographic series)  Chiefly from Wikipedia:   A [numbered] book [monographic] series is a sequence of books having certain characteristics in common that are formally identified together as a group. Book series can be organized in different ways, such as written by the same author, or marketed as a group by their publisher.  Each book in the series is numbered and has its own title.

    • Example from the Kluwer Law International web site regarding a numbered series: “The Max Planck Series on Asian Intellectual Property Law” aims at providing expert coverage of intellectual property rights, their administration and enforcement in Asian jurisdictions for both academic and practicing lawyer. Particular attention is given to the non-English speaking countries of Asia where reliable information is often difficult to come by. The series includes both country-specific reports and comparative studies on current problems of interest.” 
        • Example of a book title, volume 14, in the numbered series “The Max Planck Series on Asian Intellectual Property Law”: “Traditional knowledge, traditional cultural expressions, and intellectual property law in the Asia-Pacific region / edited by Christoph Antons.”
      • See also Unnumbered series.


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    OCP   (or Orders, Claims and Payments Unit)   Starting in 1984/85 and until we reorganized in 2007, Acquisitions Services was known as OCP (Orders, Claims and Payments Unit).  Starting in the fall of 2007, the name of our unit was changed to Acquisitions Services.

    ODATE   (or Order Date)    

    • The date the order was placed in the Millennium order record.
    • The fixed-length field in the Millennium order record that indicates when the item was ordered

    OOP  --  see   Out of print

    OPAC    --   see  Online Public Access Catalog

    Office of General Counsel  (OGC )    (Office of the Vice-President and General Counsel at the University of Michigan)  From their web page, “We strive to provide timely and responsible legal advice about the broad array of legal issues that face a modern, public, research University. We address existing and potential legal matters in order to help the University achieve its mission. Where appropriate, we provide strong, vigorous, and reasoned legal advocacy. We also coordinate and supervise all legal services for the University of Michigan, ensuring that they meet the highest standards for our community.”  Prior to June 2009, we corresponded directly with the OGC to approve contract terms for electronic resources.  As of July 2009, we now use Procurement Services to approve contract terms.

    Offprint    Courtesy of the Free Dictionary by Farlex, “A reproduction of or an excerpt from an article that was originally contained in a larger publication.”

    On order     The status of an item ordered for the Library: the item has been ordered but not yet received.

    Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC)  From Wikipedia: “An Online Public Access Catalog (often abbreviated as OPAC or simply Library Catalog) is an online database of materials held by a library…”   Ours is named the MLaw Catalog.

    Open entry  (in bibliographic record)    Certain fields in the bib. record for a continuation title that note the volumes and date the title began being published.  The catalog librarian will create fields in the bib. record that have an “open entry” by ending the imprint field with the date publication began, followed by a “-“; and filling in the beginning volume and  date of publication in the Vol/Dates field, followed by a  “-“.

    • Example: TITLE  Review of Central and Eastern law, IMPRINT Leiden : M. Nijhoff, 1975-;  VOL/DATES  Vol. 1, issue 1 (Mar. 1975)-.


    • Verb   Activity of requesting and acquiring selected materials from a vendor.   
    • Noun    The material that was selected and requested from a vendor.

    Order Department        The name of the Acquisitions Services Unit in the Law Library up until 1984/1985.

    Order file     The file [or file cabinet] in which we maintain the pre-order search forms with any attachments or accompanying documentation at the time orders are placed.  The pre-order search forms are placed in clear plastic sleeves, labeled and filed by the Millennium order number.  When the order is received, we pull the order file from the cabinet, and send the pre-order search form with the material on to Cataloging or Serials and Continuations.

    Order instrument  --  see Pre-order search form

    Order record        The record type in Millennium containing fixed-length and variable-length fields for acquisitions functions that allow us to perform and track ordering, receiving, claiming, and paying in an electronic environment.  The order record includes fields for the order and received dates, vendor, fund code, paid fields, initials of the selector, format and order status, among many others.

    Orders, Claims and Payments Unit --  See OCP

    OttoEditions   The name of the interactive web site operated by Harrassowitz in Germany.  It allows us to monitor our approval plan, and to search for the status of individual titles to determine if they will or will not come to us on approval.  A username and password are required by the vendor for access.

    Out of print      Wikipedia  “… no longer being published…   An item goes out of print when a publisher does not reprint, re-press, or reissue once all copies have been sold to retailers.”  Some items that are out of print may be available through various internet booksellers, e.g., and Alibris, among other sources.

    A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W XYZ


    P-Card       The Univ. of Michigan issues credit cards to units on campus who need them to conduct university business, and they’re called “P-cards.”   There are rules for the use of the P-cards, and those who have them undergo special training.  Currently 3 of us in Acquisitions (Lynn, Laura and I) use them to order/pay for library materials, and the staff in Law Library Administration uses P-cards for other business purposes.

    PO   --   see   Purchase order 

    Package Plan   (or Library Standing Order Plan, or Standing Order Plan)     A plan offered by some publishers to libraries to receive their newly released materials automatically, without our having to select them and place individual orders.  There are variations among such Plans, even by the same publisher.

    • Examples: we receive 1 copy of most new monographs the American Bar Association publishes, and the shipments arrive 10 or 11 times a year on what they call “Guaranteed Standing Order Plan.”  We also receive subscriptions to most ABA Section newsletters and journals on what they call the list of Package Plan Periodicals.

    Payment      From Wikipedia: “The transfer of wealth from one party (such as a person or company) to another. A payment is usually made in exchange for the provision of goods, services or both, or to fulfill a legal obligation. Common means of payment by a company (or institution) include money, check, debit, credit, or bank transfer, and in trade such payments are frequently preceded by an invoice or result in a receipt.”  Payments made by the Law Library are usually by a check drawn in US dollars, charges to a P-card, and occasionally by a wire transfer.

    Payment in advance  (or Prepayment)    When the vendor requires receipt of payment before they will ship the ordered material, we term it “payment in advance.”   We have rules for when we will or will not issue payment in advance, depending on such variables as where the payment is going or how much the payment is.  Many of the vendors with whom we do business do not require payment in advance---meaning they ship the ordered item to us before they invoice us (or at the time they invoice us).  Purchasing library materials using online bookstores is a common practice for us and usually entails paying in advance with a credit card.

    Performance agreement   --  see  Service Level Agreement (SLA)

    Periodical     From  “A magazine or other journal that is issued at regularly recurring intervals.”  

    • Example:  “European energy and environmental law review.”

    Physical format  (or format type)    Examples are paper, microform, DVD/computer tape, electronic-Web, audio or video, etc.

    Pre-order search form (or order instrument)    A printed form developed by the Law Library to record and approve the selection of materials for the collection.  The form is initiated by the selectors, is approved by the Assistant Director, the Director or their designates, and is usually accompanied by a description of the item being selected.  Special locations or receiving instructions (e.g., loc. = Main Desk, or, “send to Snow, Circ.”) are indicated on the form as well as estimated cost, number of copies, whether or not a standing order is wanted (if applicable), etc.  The form is sent to the Cataloging Unit for searching and creation of a brief bib. record; then the form goes to Acquisitions Services, where we actually order the item.  We keep the form in Acquisitions until the ordered item arrives, and then we send both on to Cataloging for further processing.

    Print from web and bind      A decision by a selector at the Law Library for staff to print available pdf’s of selected materials (such as annual reports) from the publisher’s web site, and to bind for the collection.   Used when we are unable to acquire a published “hard copy” (tangible copy) of selected materials, and when the electronic copy is deemed insufficient on its own.

    Private Law    Black’s Law Dictionary, Deluxe 8th edition.  Bryan A. Garner, Editor in Chief. Thomson/West, 2004. p. 1234  The body of  law dealing with private persons and their property and relationships.” A few examples of areas of Private Law from Wikipedia:

    R  Compare to Public law

    Process payment     4 steps in Millennium Acquisitions:

    • Key in and post the approved invoice into Millennium, where our payments are then displayed in the order records, and our funds are automatically updated;
    • Create and electronically transfer a “vencher” upload file to Accounts Payable that contains encoded accounting, invoice and vendor data needed to do two more things:
    • Record the debits and credits in the general ledger for the Law Library accounts, and 4). Write the check and send it to the vendor by US mail (or by other special arrangement).

    Procurement Services    A department at the University of Michigan (including Procurement and Logistics Services, and Purchasing)   Adapted from their web site, “The Univ. of Michigan department responsible for the …selection, acquisition and utilization of quality supplies and services…  Per the Standard Practice Guide, only Procurement Services has the delegated authority to sign contracts. Departments and their employees are not authorized to sign contracts, regardless of the dollar amount, on behalf of the University.”   As part of the acquisitions process when dealing with contracts for electronic resources, The Law Library corresponds with Procurement Services to approve contract terms and to obtain signatures.

    Public display  (in Millennium)    The information the patron sees when using the OPAC.

    Public law    Black’s Law Dictionary, Deluxe 8th edition.  Bryan A. Garner, Editor in Chief. Thomson/West, 2004. p. 1267: 

    • “The body of law dealing with the relations between private individuals and the government, and with the structure and operation of the government itself; constitutional law, criminal law, and administrative law taken together.
    • A statute affecting the general public.”

    R  Compare to Private law

    Publication abandoned    Phrase used chiefly in regard to a monograph in advance of publication meaning ‘plans to publish have been abandoned.’  The book will not be published.

    Publisher      A business entity that solicits, accepts and develops manuscripts for publication, typically providing services such as copyediting, graphic design, marketing, book production, printing and binding.  The publisher may distribute their own imprints, or may employ one or many distributors to do it for them (depending on the size of the market they serve).  Billing the library may be at the time of shipment, in advance of shipment, or on an annual subscription basis for continuations.

    • Example: Oxford University Press.

    Publisher list   (term used with approval plans) 

    • The list of publishers whose materials the library wants to receive on approval.  Also: 
    • The list of publishers whose materials the vendor includes in its approval plan services

    Publisher’s series --  see   Numbered series   or --  Unnumbered series

    Purchase order   (or PO)   

    • Law Library definition: The customized commercial form issued directly by Law Library Acquisitions to a vendor, indicating titles, quantities, and estimated or agreed upon prices for products the vendor will provide to the library.   The form also includes instructions to the vendor regarding such matters as billing and shipping address, what to do if the book significantly exceeds the estimated price, which party bears insurance costs, etc.  It becomes a legally binding contract on acceptance by the supplier.
    • University definition:  Authorizing document issued by University of Michigan Procurement Services for units for provision of goods or services from a supplier. The Law Library uses purchase orders from Procurement Services very infrequently (and under special conditions) for the purchase of library materials.

    Purchasing   Department at the University of Michigan  --  see  Procurement Services 

    A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W XYZ


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    Received date   (or RDate)  in Millennium      

    • The date of receipt of an order, as recorded in the Millennium order record.
    • The fixed-length field in the Millennium order record used to indicate the date of receipt.

    Record type  Any of the records in various modules in Millennium and ERM:

    • Authority
    • Bibliographic
    • Checkin
    • Contact
    • Course
    • Holdings
    • Invoice
    • Item
    • License
    • Order
    • Patron
    • Related holdings
    • Related order
    • Related resource
    • Resource
    • Vendor

    Red tote box     A tote box used to send and receive library materials to and from the University Library.  The box is housed on the mail counter in S-110, and a courier from the University Library delivers items to us, and takes items we are sending to them, on a regular basis.

    Ref flag       The pink flag that is placed in the new book at the time of receipt and sent to the faculty member, with this message: “Faculty notice—New in the collection.  One of the Reference Librarians thought that this new item in the collection might be of interest to you…”  Ref flags are requested by the selectors on the pre-order search form, and are not to be confused with ‘send to.’
    R Compare to Send to

    Replacement       An order or request for a new (or used) copy of the identical bibliographical entity  intended to substitute for library material that was received defective, or has been lost, defaced or has deteriorated.


    1. A publication or part of a publication which was previously published elsewhere.  Examples include collections of [previously published] essays on a particular topic; collected works; journal monographs; and offprints.
    2. The republication of a complete work previously published and now out of print.

    Reprinter      A company who produces and markets a new copy of a work previously published that is now out of print.

    • Example:  Lawbook Exchange.

    Resource record    Record type in ERM for elements of electronic resources such as: Resource name, Resource URL, Subjects, Resource type and format, etc.

    Retail      With help from Wikipedia: The practice of selling materials obtained from publishers or distributors directly to the end-user.


    1. The process of fulfilling a faculty or staff member’s request to deliver newly received issues of serials directly to them upon receipt—before the material is sent to the shelves.
    2. The name of the Millennium Serials record in which the name of the faculty or staff member is maintained to facilitate the routing.

    Rush     A new order submitted by the selectors with a request to expedite the ordering, shipping, cataloging and processing with a usual target date of 1 – 3 weeks for receipt (depending on the geographical location from which the material is being shipped).  Rush is checked by the selectors on the pre-order search form at the time the order request is submitted, and the actual date the item is needed is indicated.  We make every effort to expedite ordering, shipping, cataloging and processing.  Rush orders are placed on the same day they are submitted.
    R Compare to Triple rush

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    SFP  (Special Faculty Purchase)  

    1. The Law Library fund used to purchase materials for eligible Law School faculty members whose requests to order a publication for his/her exclusive use have been approved by the Dean.  The Law Library orders, catalogs and delivers the publication to the professor’s office, and the material is then paid for using the SFP fund.  The ‘location’ in the MLaw Catalog displays as “Private.”
    2. Private collection (purchased with SFP funds) in a professor’s office.  While the material is located in the professor’s office, the Law Library maintains ownership.

    SLA   --   see Service Level Agreement

    S.O.  --   See Standing order

    Salmon flag     A salmon-colored flag used in the Law Library to route unsolicited serials to Cataloging, the selectors and to Acquisitions Services, for decisions on whether or not a subscription order should be placed, and whether or not the item should be added to the collection.  The flag accompanies the material throughout the selection and approval process.

    Sample issue      A single current issue of a periodical that is offered by publishers and vendors to libraries [usually at no charge], as a means to invite subscription orders.  The selectors will occasionally request a sample issue of a new periodical to examine to decide if we want to subscribe.

    Secondhand book dealer     A company that actively maintains inventory for, and sells stock of, secondhand books.

    • Example: Advanced Book Exchange “”.

    Selection policy      Law Library’s written decision relating to specific publications or types of publications pursuant to the Collection Development Policy.  Selection policies are housed in full text on the Law Library Intranet and in print binders in the Ref. and Faculty Services Unit.

    Selector        A librarian who is charged with identifying, evaluating and choosing publications for the library which meet the criteria of our Collection Development policy, and selection policies.  For items we do not already own, the librarian submits a completed pre-order search form ( with the selector’s initials; number of copies wanted; price or estimated price; location; standing order instructions, etc.) which is then approved (or not) by the Assistant Director and/or Library Director or their designates.  In reference to materials we already have, the selector may review items in the collection for possible withdrawal, subscription cancellation, or approve payment for costly materials that exceed Acquisitions Services’ payment guidelines.

    Send to         The “send to” request is checked by the selector on the pre-order search form, along with the name of faculty member or patron who is requesting it, at the time the order is submitted.  It’s an instruction to send a specific new item requested by a faculty member or other patron to the requestor once the order has been received and processed.  The order is almost always “rush,” and we make every effort to expedite shipment and processing.
    R  Compare to Ref flag

    Serial    Courtesy of ARL, “A publication in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely.  This definition includes periodicals, newspapers, and annuals (reports, yearbooks, etc.); the journals, memoirs, proceedings, transactions, etc. of societies; and numbered monographic series.”

    Series   --  see  Numbered series   or  --   Unnumbered series

    Service commitment    From III CSDirect: “Service Commitments include a variety of system modification services available to all customers as part of our standard maintenance agreement. Service Commitments have a promised resolution date for each service.”

    Service Level Agreement (SLA, or Performance Agreement)   From Wikipedia: A service-level agreement (SLA) is a negotiated agreement between two parties where one is the customer and the other is the service provider…  The SLA records a common understanding about services, priorities, responsibilities, guarantees and warranties.”  Acquisitions Services currently maintains two SLAs with other University of Michigan Departments: one jointly with Procurement and Logistics Services, and Office of General Counsel; and the other with Procurement, Accounts Payable.  The SLAs allow us to order most library materials directly from the vendors, arrange for approval and signing of contracts for electronic resources , and to send vencher upload files directly to Accounts Payable for check writing (bypassing audit and final approval).  These SLAs save us valuable staff time on activities that would otherwise be duplicative or unnecessary.

    Service request   From III’s CSDirect: “Reported problems with the Innovative system for which we are actively seeking a resolution.  Various projects, including product installations, configuration requests, indexing projects, profiling, training, or other inquiries   Projects that you have asked us to put on hold until a future date.”

    Source__--  see Vendor

    Special Faculty Purchase   --   see SFP

    Staff mode    (in Millennium)     The display of, and access to, records restricted for staff functions.

    Standing order  [or informally, S.O.]    An order for a continuation that is typically published annually or less frequently for which each issue/volume/year published is wanted by the library and will be sent to us automatically, as published.  Used when the vendor will accept standing orders, meaning they have the capability to record our order so that each new issue/volume/year is sent out to us upon publication (without our asking them each time).  Billing is done at the time of shipment (or in advance of shipment).

    • Example: a continuation order for the “Yearbook of European Law.”

    R Compare to Subscription

    Standing Order Plan    --    see Package Plan

    Statement of account      A vendor’s customized commercial document prepared for the library’s account(s), typically listing outstanding (i.e., unpaid) invoices and amounts due, credits and account balances.  As we maintain accounts within the university, and with vendors outside the university, we receive Statements of Account from both.  U of M Financial Operations sends out a monthly Statement of Account.  For accounts with vendors outside the university, some send Statements on a regular basis (e.g., monthly), while others send them out sporadically. Occasionally, an invoice listed as outstanding on a Statement of Account will be one we have not even received—prompting us to request a copy of said invoice so we have the opportunity to approve and process it for payment.

    • Example of a vendor outside the university who sends out regular Statements of Account: LexisNexis Matthew Bender.

    Stop list       A term used with approval plan profiles-- a list of numbered series titles the library excludes on an approval plan.

    • Example: the series “Studi Urbinate di Scienze Giuridiche, Politiche ed Economich” is excluded on our Casalini Libri approval profile.

    Stop pursuit     A decision made by the selector in writing regarding our subscription to an out-of-date continuation to stop claiming and to stop expecting further issues/volumes/years---but to reopen our records and keep and pay for any material that does arrive in the future.  This particular decision is applicable to situations in which the continuation appears to have ceased publication—but we cannot officially confirm it.  In these circumstances, we do not cancel our subscription and we do want the material if it continues to be published.
    R Compare to Subscription cancellation

    Subscription    An order for a continuation that is typically published twice a year or more frequently which specifies that each issue/volume/part published is wanted and will be sent to us automatically, as published, and for which renewal may be necessary in order to continue receiving it.  Used when the vendor will accept subscriptions, meaning they have the capability to record our order so that each new issue/volume/part is sent out to us upon publication (without our asking them each time).  Billing is usually annual, often before the beginning of the renewed subscription period.

    • Example of a subscription title:  “Harvard law review.”

    R Compare to Standing order

    Subscription agent     A company that provides subscription services for libraries in a particular market—meaning they act as a “middle man” between the library and the publisher or distributor.  The Subscription Agent handles accepting and cancelling the subscription orders, renewals, billing, payments, customer service, and claims of non-receipt, by liaising with the publisher or distributor on behalf of the library.  Advantages to the library include dealing with one company for subscriptions published by many different publishers.  Instead of the library issuing payments and having to correspond with many different publishers, we use sources who handle all the business matters.  Different publishers have different ways of doing business (e.g., requiring payment in their local currency, having varying terms for accepting claims of non-receipt and cancellations).  By dealing with Subscription Agents, the Agents keep track of all the variations and the libraries have fewer vendors to deal with. We use several Subscription Agents, depending on the country of publication or other limiting factors. Shipping by Subscription Agents is usually done by the publisher or distributor directly to the library, while the library is billed by the Subscription Agent.

    • Example: Wm. S. Hein & Co.

    Subscription cancellation   (including Subscription Cancellation T/W form)   The Law Library’s decision by a selector using the Subscription Cancellation T/W form, and/or the process we use in Acquisitions Services to cancel a subscription that is no longer wanted.  The form includes the selector’s instructions for Continuations & Serials Services, Cataloging Services and Collection Maintenance on retention of the material:

    • keep;
    • collect and relocate to another location (“transfer”);
    • collect, discard the material and remove the record  from the OPAC  display (“withdraw”).

    R Compare to Stop pursuit

    Subscription stoppage   (or lapsed subscription)     The order for a currently published subscription for which we inadvertently lack the most current material.  For an annual, we may lack the most current year.  For a monthly, our holdings as of Aug. 1, 2009 (for example) may stop with May 2009, although we paid for the full year. The situations require claiming and sometimes require our sending proof of payment to the vendor before the subscription is properly reinstated.

    Substitute  (see also ‘replacement’)    An order to replace a missing or damaged copy.  Part of the processing of the “substitute” once it’s been received and sent to Cataloging is to withdraw the missing or damaged copy.

    Substitute W-9   --   see W-9 form

    Suppressed record   (in Millennium)   (Suppress record from public view)      A record whose public display has been blocked in the MLaw catalog.   Bib. records are suppressed when an order the library places turns out to be out-of-print. Other record types may also be suppressed from public display depending on the circumstances.

    Suspension of publication     While no formal decision to cease publication of a continuation has been made, nothing is being published at present, and publication in the immediate future is uncertain.

    SwetsWise         The interactive web site operated by Swets Subscription Services which allows us to claim issues immediately, in real time, and to administer our subscriptions, in general.  The vendor requires a username and password for access.

    System Library  --   see  Divisional Library

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    TLOC   (or Temporary location)   The fixed-length field in Millennium order records that indicates if the received order is being held temporarily in Acquisitions, Cataloging, Reference, Circulation, or in Serials and Continuations.  Until a new order is cataloged and shelved, we track its whereabouts so it may be located at any time.

    T/W  --   see  Transfer/withdraw

    Tickler     Variable-length field in Millennium typically used to remind Acquisitions Services by means of an email to order or claim library materials.

    Tickler log      Variable-length field in Millennium typically used to record the details of the Tickler after the email reminder has been sent.

    Title change    (in relation to library materials)   The outcome of the practice by publishers to change the title of:

    • a periodical or other continuation, for example:SMU science and technology law review” is a title change from “Computer law review and technology journal.”
    • a monograph, when the prepublication title announced is different from the actual published title.

    Transfer/withdraw The decision made by the selector using the Subscription cancellation T/W form (regardless of whether or not the publication is a subscription item) to:

    • collect and relocate library material to another location (“transfer”); or,
    • collect, discard the material and suppress the record from the OPAC  display (“withdraw”).

    A new urgently needed order which is our top priority, submitted by the selectors with a request to seriously expedite the ordering, shipping, cataloging and processing with a usual target date of 2 – 7 days for receipt (depending on the geographical location from which the material is being shipped). ‘Triple rush’ is checked by the selectors on the pre-order search form, as well as the actual date the item is needed, at the time the order request is submitted,.  We make every effort to expedite ordering, shipping, cataloging and processing, and we interrupt our other work to deal with a triple rush order. 

    Triple rush NEED DEFINITION

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    UL   --  see  University Library

    Uniform title   From A uniform title is used when a work has appeared under varying titles, necessitating that a particular title be chosen to represent the work.

    University Library     The “main library” at the University of Michigan also known as the Graduate Library, the General Library, or the Harlan Hatcher Graduate Library [HHGL].

    Unnumbered series     (or unnumbered book series or monographic series)    Chiefly from Wikipedia:  An [unnumbered] book series is a sequence of books having certain characteristics in common that are formally identified together as a group. Book series can be organized in different ways, such as written by the same author, or marketed as a group by their publisher.   Each book in the series has its own title.

    • Example of an unnumbered series:  “Oxford commentaries on international law.”
    • Example of a book title in the unnumbered series: “The 1972 World Heritage Convention: a commentary / edited by Francesco Francioni with the assistance of Federico Lenzerini.”

    Unsolicited serial     A serial received that was not ordered and has not been reviewed for the collection. We receive many such items.  Some are “sample issues” of new journals sent to us on a complimentary basis by the publisher or a vendor with an invitation to place a subscription order.  Others are serials that we have not ordered that are sent by a publisher or vendor because they thought we might like to have them.  Salmon flags are placed in the issues, and the material is routed to Cataloging and the selectors, for decisions on whether or not to add to the collection.

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    Variable-length field   (in Millennium)  From  “Each type of record has a set of valid variable-length fields, determined by your organization during the setup of your system. Variable-length fields contain data that is usually alphanumeric. Examples of data in variable-length fields are free-text notes, addresses, and barcodes. Variable-length fields may contain up to 10,000 characters of alphanumeric data each.”

    Vencher  (Vencher upload)   The term coined in our Performance Agreement with Procurement, Accounts Payable, for the data file and the procedure we use to send the files electronically for payment.  The data file is a combination of vendor and voucher information, i.e., “vencher.”

    Vendor     (or source)  A publisher, subscription agent, jobber/bookseller, secondhand book dealer, reprinter, or distributor from whom we order or receive publications.

    Vendor record       A record type in the Millennium Acquisitions subsystem that functions in a number of ways:  maintains the vendor’s centralized mailing and email addresses, phone, fax and account numbers for use in order and checkin records throughout the catalog; records EDI data; stores pertinent acquisitions statistics; provides individualized claiming parameters for new orders; stores local account information to bridge between the Law Library and University of Michigan Financial Operations to facilitate payment processing.

    Voucher   From Procurement Service’s web site glossary    “An M-Pathways document matching a supplier’s invoice to …  a department’s specified chart-field combination (Non-PO voucher).  The voucher defines how and when the supplier will receive payment.” 

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    W9 form (or Substitute W9 form)  From University of Michigan Procurement’s web site: “Each new vendor is sent a "Substitute W9" form to complete, sign and return for vendor certification. This form is a method of collecting tax information for the IRS and other information that the University is required to report…You may assist with vendor certification by requesting the vendor complete the form. Payments to the vendor will be held until this information has been returned.”

    Wholesale     With help from Wikipedia:  Resale (sale without transformation) of new and used goods to retailers or other wholesalers.

    Wire transfer (or bank wire transfer)   From Wikipedia“A wire transfer or credit transfer is a method of transferring money from one person or institution (entity) to another. A wire transfer can be made from one bank account to another bank account or through a transfer of cash at a cash office.”  Sometimes the vendor requires us to pay with a bank wire, an alternative method of payment necessitating an extra step in the process.  We send wire transfers when we have no other choice. 

    • Example: we currently send payments via wire transfer for materials published in Pakistan to our vendor, M/S Sheikh Mubarak Ali, Publishers and Booksellers in Lahore.

    Wolverine Access    The University of Michigan’s virtual gateway to administrative systems: university business, employee business, faculty business and student business; and additional information for students, parents & family, alumni and the public.  In Acquisitions Services, we use Wolverine Access to process and approve P-Card statements of account; trace other payments; process journal entries; post check deposits; and print University account statements.

    WorldCat    From WorldCat.orgWorldCat is provided by OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. on behalf of its member libraries…  WorldCat is the world's largest network of library content and services. WorldCat libraries are dedicated to providing access to their resources on the Web, where most people start their search for lets you search the collections of libraries in your community and thousands more around the world. WorldCat grows every day thanks to the efforts of librarians and other information professionals.”  

    • WorldCat is the bibliographic utility to which we maintain membership in the Law Library.

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    A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W XYZ


    YBP   (formerly known as Yankee Book Peddler)   The name of the company now known as YBP Library Services, a Baker & Taylor Company, with headquarters in Contoocook, NH.  We maintain an approval plan for North America and Canada through them.  They maintain their interactive web site, GOBI, through which we may search and place orders, etc.

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