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The University of Michigan Law School

         The University of Michigan Law School


LSSS Constitution 

LAW SCHOOL STUDENT SENATE BYLAW CONSTITUTION

PREAMBLE

We, the students of the University of Michigan Law School, in order to promote Law student welfare, to improve the quality of legal education at the University of Michigan, to advance the ideals of legal education and the legal profession, to provide students with an effective representative voice in the affairs of the Law School and the University, and to make legal education and the legal profession more responsive to the needs of law students and the society they are preparing to serve, do hereby adopt this Bylaw Constitution establishing a new student government for the University of Michigan Law School. 

ARTICLE I. NAME

The name of the governing organization of the University of Michigan Law School Student Body shall be THE LAW SCHOOL STUDENT SENATE, hereinafter designated the "Senate." 

ARTICLE II. OBJECTIVES

In furtherance of the general principles set forth in the PREAMBLE, the Senate shall strive to achieve the following specific objectives, but shall not be limited to these and may strive to achieve such other objectives not in conflict with the provisions of this Bylaw Constitution as the Senate shall from time to time deem appropriate:
 
§ 2.1 Academic Policy: Adoption by the Law School of such academic standards, procedures, and regulations that will serve to advance student welfare, improve the quality of teaching and learning in the Law School, protect the privacy and integrity of student academic records, and to provide for the most positive and accurate evaluation of student academic performance.
 
§ 2.2 Curriculum: Adoption by the Law School of such curricular offerings as will best meet the needs of law students, their future clients, and the society in which they will work.
 
§ 2.3 Extracurricular Activities: Administration of student fees and other Senate revenues to provide a balanced program of educational, social, and cultural extracurricular activities for members of the Law Student Body.
 
§ 2.4 Legal Reforms: Adoption by organized bar and governmental bodies and officials at all levels of such reforms in the legal profession and the legal system as will best advance the humanitarian ideals which are inherent in a democratic government and society.
 
§ 2.5 Law Student Interests: Representation of general Law Student interest and protection of the rights and privileges of all law students in appropriate policy-making or law-making deliberations of the Law School, of the University of Michigan, and of governmental bodies at local, state, and national levels.
 
§ 2.6 Ethics: Promotion of awareness on the part of all Law Students regarding the social, ethical, and professional responsibilities inherent in the study of and practice of law.
 
§ 2.7 Student Conduct: Promulgation and enforcement of such policies and regulations pertaining to student conduct as may be deemed necessary and appropriate within the authority of a student government for the protection of the persons, property, and civil rights of members of the Law School and for the preservation within the Law School of an atmosphere conducive to free inquiry and expression.
 
§ 2.8 Facilities: Promulgation and enforcement of such policies and regulations as may be deemed necessary for the orderly and equitable operation of the residential, recreational, and service facilities of the Lawyers Club.

ARTICLE III. SOURCES OF AUTHORITY; RELATIONS WITH OTHER GOVERNMENTAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE BODIES AND OFFICIALS

The Senate is the exclusive official governing organization representing the Law School Student Body in its entirety.
 
§ 3.1 Authority: The Senate derives its authority from the consent of the Law School Student Body as manifested by the original ratification of the bylaw Constitution and from the recognition accorded by the Board of Governors of the Lawyers Club as manifested by its approval of this Bylaw Constitution.
 
§ 3.2 Independent Organizations: The status of the Senate as the exclusive representative of the Law School Student Body in toto shall in no way abridge the rights of law students to form independent organizations or associations for the pursuit of specialized goals or for the advancement of minority interests.
 
§ 3.3 Relations With Other Organizations: Though not limited to the following roles, the Senate shall function as the sole representative of the Law School Student Body in toto in all relations with the following bodies and officials:
 
a) Other organizations and associations of the University of Michigan Law Students;
b) Other Student Government bodies in the University;
c) The American Bar Association - Law Student Division;
d) Law School Faculty and Administration and committees constituted thereby;
e) The Lawyers Club Corporation and its Board of Governors as the Student Government of the Lawyers Club pursuant to the Corporation Bylaws;
f) University of Michigan Faculty, Administration, and Regents, and other University governmental bodies and administrative offices constituted under their respective authorities. 

ARTICLE IV. POWERS

In furtherance of the general principles set forth in the PREAMBLE and in ARTICLE II, the Senate shall exercise the following specific powers in addition to any other general powers (and subject to any limitations) set forth elsewhere in this Bylaw Constitution or granted (or imposed) by bodies or officials of superior authority, or otherwise customarily and appropriately exercised by student government bodies:
 
§ 4.1 Resolutions: The power to adopt and publish resolutions representing the positions of the Law School Student body on any issue of relevance to legal education, the legal profession, the legal system, Law School policies, or university policies.
 
§ 4.2 Expenditures: The power to expend funds allocated by the Law School or generated by revenue-producing operations conducted by the Senate in ways that directly or primarily benefit programs of the Law School or members of the Law School Student Body, Faculty, or Administration.
 
§ 4.3 Committees: The power to establish ad hoc committees or commissions for purposes of development, implementation, or operation of specific programs or to research issues.
 
§ 4.4 Student Appointments: The power to appoint members of the Law School Student Body to all deliberative, advisory or study groups or committees established by the faculty or Administration of the Law School or the University which call for Law School Student membership; and to appoint student representatives to specific Law School Faculty meetings.
 
§ 4.5 Student Organizations: The power to recognize and support independent organizations and associations of Law School Students and to allocate Senate funds for the use of such recognized groups.
 
§ 4.6 Lawyers Club: The power to review and comment upon all proposed changes in the operational policies pertaining to the residential, recreational, dining, and other service facilities and programs of the Lawyers Club; and the power, by express resolution declaring such an intent, to direct the votes of Student Members of the Board of Governors in any Board of Governors vote on an issue previously resolved by the Senate.
 
§ 4.7 Guests and Honors: The power to invite guests to the Law School and to bestow recognition upon guests or members of the law School Community on behalf of the Law School Student Body.
 
§ 4.8 Publications: The power to sponsor the publication of official Law School Student newspapers or periodicals.
 
§ 4.9 Grievances: The power to hear, as a committee of the whole, any grievances expressed by any Law School Student concerning alleged unfair treatment by Faculty Members, Administrators, Senate Officials or Members, or other Law School Student Organizations; and the power to communicate findings, inquiries, and resolutions concerning grievances to the appropriate authorities or individuals.
 
§ 4.10 Audits: The power to authorize or conduct an independent audit of the records of the Senate Treasurer.
 
§ 4.11 Constitutional Interpretation: The power to interpret the provisions of this Bylaw Constitution in cases of ambiguity by a unanimous vote of the executive Board, subject to rescission by two-thirds vote of the Senate membership (excluding vacant seats), or, barring agreement by the Executive Board, by a majority of the Senate Membership (excluding vacant seats).

ARTICLE V. SENATE COMPOSITION; DEFINITION OF MEMBERS; LENGTH OF TERMS

The Senate shall be organized as a deliberative body composed of elected officers and representatives.
 
§ 5.1 Senate Composition and Definition of Members: The elected Senate shall be composed of:
 
a) four Executive Officers, elected from and by the Law Student Body At Large,
b) one Representative elected from and by each of the four First-year Class Sections,
c) three Junior Representatives elected from and by the Second-year Law Student Body At Large, [As amended, March 2007]
d) two Senior Representatives elected from and by the Third-year Law Student Body At Large and one Senior Representative elected from and by the Third-year Law Students due to graduate in December of that year.  [As amended, March 2007]
e) one Junior Student Member to serve on the Lawyers Club Board of Governors elected from the First-year Law Student Body At Large by the Law School Student Body At Large,
f) one Senior Student Member, as defined in Section 5.3, to serve on the Lawyers Club Board of Governors, and
g) one L.L.M. Representative elected from and by, or appointed by, participants in the L.L.M. program. [As amended, April 1997].
 
§ 5.2 Executive Officers: The elected Executive Officers of the Senate shall be President, Vice President, Secretary, and Treasurer. The Executive Officers shall together comprise the Executive Board.
 
§ 5.3 Length of Terms: All elected Senate officers and members, with the exception of the Junior Representative elected to membership on the Lawyers Club Board of Governors, shall serve a term of one year or less. The precise length of the term of the Executive Officers, Junior and Senior representatives, Junior and Senior Student Members of the Lawyers Club Board of Governors is determined by the date upon which succeeding officers, representatives and members assume office. The terms of First-year and LLM Representatives end on the date upon which newly elected executive officers take office. The Junior Student Member serving on the Lawyers Club Board of Governors shall automatically succeed to the position of Senior Student Member in the second year immediately following, provided that the Junior Student Member will still be enrolled in the Law School during the second year as defined in section 9.2 of the Bylaw Constitution. This provision does not preclude a student from serving consecutive terms if re-elected, except for the student serving as the Senior Student Member of the Lawyers Club Board of Governors. However, no student shall serve on the Senate in any elected position for more than three years, and the Law Students enrolled in joint degree programs shall only be eligible to serve on the Senate in any elected position for a maximum of two years not including their first year. 

ARTICLE VI. AUTHORITY AND DUTIES OF EXECUTIVE OFFICERS

§ 6.1 President: The President shall:
 
a) Preside over all meetings of the Senate.
b) Call and preside over meetings of the Executive Board.
c) Be responsible for implementing policies adopted by the Senate.
d) Function as the official communication link between the Senate and the Faculty and Administration of the Law School and of the University.
e) Serve as the official spokesperson of the Senate in accordance with positions officially adopted by the Senate
f) Have authority to call special meetings of the Senate.
g) Serve as ex officio member of the Lawyers Club Board of Governors.
h) Have the authority to delegate presidential authority and responsibility, when appropriate, to other members of the Senate or of the Law School Student Body.
i) Have the authority to add items to the Agenda in short notice without the consent of the Senate.
 
§ 6.2 Vice President: The Vice President shall:
 
a) Preside over meetings of the Senate and the Executive Board at the request or in the absence of the President.
b) Be responsible for such special duties as may be delegated by the President with the Senate's approval.
c) Serve as parliamentary consultant upon request by the presiding officer.
d) Serve as Chairperson of the Standing Committee on Revision of the Bylaw Constitution and Codes.
e) Be responsible for Senate oversight of Senate standing and ad hoc committees, including, but not limited to: soliciting nominating applications for students to serve on such committees, submitting to the Executive Board and Senate recommendations for student appointments to such committees, presiding over the appointment of Senate Members to serve as liaisons to such committees, and maintaining a list of the membership of such committees.
 
§ 6.3 Secretary: The Secretary shall:
 
a) Share with the Treasurer responsibility for management of the Senate Office, supplies, and equipment.
b) Be responsible for recording and publishing the minutes of Senate meetings.
c) Be responsible for maintaining records of communications received and generated by the Senate.
d) Be responsible for maintaining records of: 1) policies and regulations adopted by the senate; 2) policies and reports adopted or produced by committees, commissions and boards established by the Senate; 3) Law School Student groups accorded Senate recognition; and 4) current and past membership rolls of the Senate, and all of its committees and boards.
e) Have authority to delegate any clerical or secretarial tasks associated with the office to paid or volunteer workers, provided that said delegation has received Senate approval when the tasks delegated involve relinquishing direct control over official records.
f) Function as a liaison with the various Law School Student groups recognized and funded by the Senate and assemble a directory of all recognized student organizations and the respective officers of each organization.
 
§ 6.4 Treasurer: The Treasurer shall:
 
a) Keep accurate and current accounts of all Senate revenues and expenditures.
b) File with the Senate a reasonably detailed financial report within one month of assuming office and during each of the months of September, January, and April.
c) Collect, assemble, analyze, copy and distribute to the Senate all requests for appropriations of Senate funds.
d) Review all requisitions for disbursement of Senate funds, reporting all such requisitions to the Senate with recommendations for either approval or disapproval.
e) Share with the Secretary responsibility for management of the Senate Office, supplies, and equipment.
f) Insure compliance, by the Senate and by those to whom it allocates funds, with the provisions of the Senate Code for Budget and Financial Accountability. 

ARTICLE VII. COMMITTEES AND BOARDS

The standing committees and boards of the Senate shall be constituted and function as set forth below. Where otherwise specified or restricted by the provisions of this Bylaw Constitution, by action of the Senate, or by external authority, the composition, functions, and manner of conducting the business of the respective standing bodies shall be determined themselves, or (where membership composition is not definite) by the respective chairpersons. Except for Senate members appointed to serve on standing committees or boards by this Bylaw Constitution, all appointments to Senate standing or ad hoc committees and boards must be recommended by the Executive Board to and approved by the Senate.
 
§ 7.1 Length of Terms: Appointed members and chairpersons of standing and ad hoc committees and boards shall serve terms of one year or less, the precise length to be determined by the date upon which succeeding appointees begin their duties. This provision does not preclude re-appointment for consecutive terms.
 
§ 7.2 Membership Requirements: Only students currently enrolled as defined in Section 9.2 of this Bylaw Constitution shall be appointed to such positions. Any student applying to serve as a student representative on any deliberative, advisory, or study group or committee established by the Faculty or Administration of the Law School or University which call for Law School Student membership must inform the Senate regarding any connection such student may have with any Law School or University employees or departments covered by the jurisdiction of the Faculty or Administration group or committee. In order to insure the most effective student representation on these Faculty and Administration committees, no student shall be appointed as a student representative on a particular committee where the student in question is employed by a Law School or University staff or department over which the particular committee has primary jurisdiction, except where the Executive Board determines in consultation with the Dean of the Law School that student interests will not be undermined by appointing the student in question to the committee. The strictures of this provision shall not be construed to preclude a student from serving as a student representative on a Faculty or Administration committee where the student in question performs unpaid work for Law School or University staff and departments or where the student performs paid work for Law School or University staff and departments that is unrelated to the subject matter under the jurisdiction of the particular committee (i.e. research assistants for professors.)
 
§ 7.3 Executive Board:
 
a) Composition: President, Vice President, Secretary and Treasurer.
b) Functions: To prepare the formal agenda for business meetings; to prepare recommendations on the annual budget proposals; to recommend nominees to the Senate for appointment to standing and ad hoc committees and boards; to act for the Senate within the scope of delegated authority when it is not feasible for the Senate to meet.
 
§ 7.4 Committee On Revision of the Bylaw Constitution and Codes:
 
a) Composition: The Senate Vice President, as ex officio chairperson; one senator from each class-year; the chairperson of relevant standing committees or boards at the request of the Vice President (on an ad hoc basis depending upon the specific code or bylaw provisions under consideration); other Law School Students recommended for appointment by the Vice President and appointed by the senate as deemed appropriate.
b) Functions: To give initial consideration and make recommendations regarding proposed code or bylaw changes; to review periodically the codes and bylaws for the purposes of identifying and developing needed revisions.
 
§ 7.5 Committee on Elections:
 
a) Composition: A chairperson who is not a candidate for election; at least one Senate member who is not a candidate for election; and any additional Law School Students selected by the chairperson and approved by the Senate, provided that none are candidates for election.
b) Functions: To screen candidates and conduct elections in accordance with the provision of the Code of Elections; to conduct the nominating process for elected positions in accordance with the provision of the Code of Elections; to periodically review the Code and Bylaw Constitution and recommend needed reforms to the Committee on Revision of the Bylaw Constitution and Codes.
 
§ 7.6 Residential Committee: [Dissolved by Amendment, April 1997.]
 
§ 7.7 Committee on Academic Standards, Admissions, Financial Aid, Personnel, Placement, and Curriculum:
 
a) Composition: Student representatives appointed by the Senate to serve on Faculty committees concerned with Academic Standards, Admissions, Financial Aid, Personnel, Curriculum, and Placement; other Law School Students appointed by the Senate.
b) Functions: To review and report to the Senate upon various matters of current interest which affect or may potentially affect the academic welfare of the Law School and of Law Students. Where appropriate, the Senate may combine the functions of any of these committees into a single committee.

ARTICLE VIII. PROCEDURES FOR MEETINGS AND THE CONDUCT OF BUSINESS

§ 8.1 Procedure: The current edition of ROBERTS REVISED RULES OF ORDER shall be the parliamentary authority governing all maters of procedure for which this Bylaw Constitution and other rules adopted by the Senate do not otherwise provide.
 
§ 8.2 Presiding Officer: The President shall preside over all meetings of the Senate except that the Vice President may preside over a regularly scheduled meeting of the Senate in the absence of the President or may preside at all or part of any meeting as the request of the President, or may preside at the request of the Senate over that portion of any meeting involving proceedings directly relating to the President's continuation in office.
 
§ 8.3 Quorum: A majority of the Senate membership, including the President and excluding seats which are vacant, shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business.
 
§ 8.4 Consideration of Motions: Unless this provision is waived by approval of the presiding officer plus a majority of the remaining Senate membership, or by two thirds of the membership excluding vacant seats, no main motion relating to 1) appropriation of Senate Funds, 2) Amendment of this Bylaw Constitution or rules or codes promulgated hereunder, or
3) matters affecting the status of members of the Senate or any of its standing committees and boards, shall be acted upon until the next official meeting of the senate following the meeting at which the substance of said motion was first introduced. This section does not apply to motions to substantially amend main motions introduced at previous meetings.
 
§ 8.5 Votes: Each member of the Senate shall have one vote on all matters put before the body except that the President shall vote only in the case of a tie. The Vice President may vote when presiding at the request of the President in the presence of the President, but may vote only in the case of a tie when presiding in the absence of the President. Votes may be exercised by proxy if put in writing and communicated to the secretary prior to the time of voting on the issue in question.
 
§ 8.6 Meetings: All meetings of the Senate shall be open to all members of the Law School Student Body, Administration, and Faculty except for such meetings as the Senate may designate closed sessions for the purpose of discussing matters that are likely to have a direct and harmful effect upon the privacy, status or reputation of specified individuals. No official action may be taken by the Senate in closed sessions, such sessions being only for the purpose of discussing such matters as are delineated above. Non-members in attendance at Senate meetings shall generally be permitted and encouraged to participate in orderly debate of agenda items, but such participation may be restricted by the Chair when necessary for the fair and efficient conduct of business. 

ARTICLE IX. ELECTIONS AND APPOINTMENTS; QUALIFICATIONS AND PROCEDURES

The Senate shall promulgate and maintain a Code Of Elections to govern the conduct of all Senate elections and referenda.
 
§ 9.1 Code Provisions: The Code shall include, but not be limited to provisions for the following:
 
a) Certifying the qualifications of candidates and voters.
b) Establishing and publicizing election dates, polling places and times, and balloting procedures, including appropriate provisions for absentee voting.
c) Regulating ballot preparation, security and counting.
d) Regulating campaign conduct.
e) Hearing and deciding election protest and appeals.
 
§ 9.2 Voter Qualifications: In order to qualify generally as a voter in a Senate election, an individual must be a currently enrolled member of the Law School Student Body where "current enrollment" means that the individual has paid the Law School fee for the current term. Law School Students enrolled in joint degree programs with other schools at the University of Michigan shall be considered currently enrolled members of the Law School Student Body during all years of study in the joint degree program. However, law students enrolled in joint degree programs shall be considered members of the second-year Law Student Body At Large for all intermediate years between their first year of study as a member of the Law School Student Body and their final year of study in the joint degree program, at which time they will be considered a member of the Third-year Law School Student Body At Large.
 
§ 9.3 Number of Votes: Eligible voters will be allotted the following number of votes in each election:
a) For 1L Representative: 1 vote;
b) For 2L Representative: 3 votes;
c) For LLM Representative: 1 vote;
d) For Junior Representative to the Board of Governors: 1 vote;
e) For all Executive Board Positions: 1 vote for each position;
f) 3L Fall Starters voting in the 3L Representative election will be allotted two votes in that election. 3L Summer Starters will be allocated two votes in the 3L Representative election, and one vote in the 3L Summer Starter Election.
g) No voter may vote for a single candidate more than once in any election.
 
§ 9.4 Candidate Qualifications: In order to qualify as a candidate, as individual must be a currently enrolled student as defined in section 9.2 above who will also be enrolled each school term during the term of office for which the individual seeks election, and is subject to the Definition of Office being sought by the candidate as set forth in section 5.1. In addition, an individual must be qualified by the timely submission, in the manner required by the Code of Elections, of a nominating petition bearing the signatures of the requisite number of persons qualified to vote for the position for which the candidate seeks nomination. In addition, an individual must meet all requirements and conditions set forth in Article V of this Bylaw Constitution. [As amended, April 1997.]
 
§ 9.5 Simultaneous Position: No member of the Law School Student Body may hold more than one position on the Senate at any one time, and no individual may simultaneously hold an executive office in the Senate and an appointed position as chairperson or presiding officer of one of the Senate standing committees or boards. [As amended, April 1997.]
 
§ 9.6 Committee Chairperson Appointments: Unless this Bylaw Constitution specifically provides otherwise, chairpersons or presiding officers of all standing and ad hoc committees and boards shall be appointed by the Senate Executive Board with appointment conditional upon Senate approval by a majority of Senate membership (excluding vacant seats).
 
§ 9.7 Committee Membership Appointments: Unless this Bylaw Constitution provides otherwise, the official voting membership (where such exist) of any standing committee or board shall be appointed by the group's presiding officer or chairperson subject to Senate approval by a majority of those present. Unless this Bylaw Constitution or duly adopted Senate Policies provide otherwise, committees and boards may function by consensus without an official voting membership.
 
§ 9.8 Committee Membership Qualifications: Any individual who is qualified to vote in Senate Elections and who will be so qualified during the term of office to which (s)he may be appointed is thereby qualified to serve on any Senate committees 9subject to the restrictions against employment by the Law School for student representatives set forth in section 7.2 and on simultaneous office-holding set forth in section 9.4). Except where this Bylaw Constitution provides otherwise, those individuals seeking appointment as presiding officers or chairpersons of standing committees or boards must further qualify by timely presentation of a nominating application to the Vice President.
 
§ 9.9 Timing of Elections. Elections for Senate Executive Officers shall be held during the last fifteen school days of March each year, with newly elected officers taking office within fifteen school days thereafter. Elections of first-year Representatives, 2L Representatives, the 3L Summer Starter Representative, the 3L Representatives, the Junior Representative to the Board of Governors of the Lawyers Club, and the L.L.M. Representative shall be held during the last ten school days of September or the first five days of October of each school year. Insofar as is practicable, presiding officers of the standing committees and boards shall be appointed by May 1 to serve during the summer and the following school year. Specific dates for elections, appointments, and assumptions of duties may be prescribed in the Code of Elections and Appointments or set by the Senate on an ad hoc basis. [amended Sept. 2013.]
 
§ 9.10 Vacancies: Vacancies for elective offices shall be filled at the next regular Senate election by the procedures normally applicable to the office. Vacancies which occur in the Senate Executive Offices shall be filled temporarily by election from among the Senate membership, with a majority of the remaining members (excluding those nominated to fill the vacancy) required to elect. Vacancies which occur in other Senate seats may be filled temporarily by appointment of the available defeated candidate with the highest vote total in the last election for the vacant position. If the March election leaves the Senior Representative position for December graduates unfilled, that position shall be filled by the available defeated At Large Senior Representative candidate with the highest vote total. In the absence of such potential appointees or at the option of the senate, seats which would be vacant for more than two months before the next regular election may be temporarily filled by a special election declared by a majority vote of the remaining Senate membership. In such an election, the Senate may open the December graduate Senior Representative position to all third-year students. In the absence of action by the Senate, a special election may be required by petition of one-hundred persons eligible to vote in such special election.

ARTICLE X. RESIGNATION, REMOVAL OR DISCIPLINE OF MEMBERS

§ 10.1 Resignations: Senate members and officials wishing to resign from elective or appointive positions must submit signed letters of resignation to the Senate Secretary or President.
 
§ 10.2 Removal: The Senate may remove from office any appointed Senate Official upon a vote of two-thirds of the Senate membership (excluding vacant seats).
 
§ 10.3 Censure: The Senate may officially censure any of its members or any appointed Senate official by a vote of two-thirds of the senate membership (excluding vacant seats). Censure may include, when so specified by the Senate publication to the Law School Community or attachment of notice of the censure to all official records of the individual's service on the Senate.
 
§ 10.4 Impeachment: The Senate may remove from office any of its own members by impeachment upon a vote of three-fourths of the Senate membership (excluding vacant seats and the seat held by the subject of the vote). Excessive absence from Senate meetings may be grounds for removal. Absence from three consecutive or four out of five consecutive meetings shall result in automatic loss of office subject to reinstatement by a vote of two-thirds of the Senate. The Senate may remove from office any of its members by a majority vote of the Senate membership (excluding vacant seats) when the vote follows presentation of a recall petition signed by twenty per cent of the current Law School Student Body qualified to vote for such member. 

ARTICLE XI. SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR FISCAL ACCOUNTABILITY AND BUDGETARY PLANNING

§ 11.1 Accounts: The Senate Treasurer shall be responsible for maintaining accurate accounts of the financial transactions of the Senate and shall periodically report to the Senate and the Law School Student Body concerning the status of the Senate Accounts.
 
§ 11.2 Accounting: All receipts and disbursements shall be made in accordance with sound accounting procedures through the Senate Account maintained by the Senate Treasurer with local banks or with the business officers of the University of Michigan.
 
§ 11.3 Budget Code: The Senate shall promulgate a code of procedures and policies regulating the formulation of the annual budget and subsequent alterations thereof. These procedures and policies shall include but not be limited to the provisions for the following:
 
a) Solicitation of written annual budget requests from sponsored groups and organizations.
b) Preparation and distribution to the Senate of the tentative budget.
c) Open hearings upon the tentative budget proposal prior to final adoption.
d) Publication of any general policies governing particular classes of appropriations (e.g. travel expense reimbursement, office supplies, etc.) or specifying purposes for which appropriations will not be made.
 
§ 11.4 Discretionary Appropriations: At times when it is impossible for the Senate to meet (e.g. during the summer), the President and Treasurer after mutual consultation may make proper discretionary appropriations not totaling more than one-hundred-fifty dollars from Senate contingency funds without prior approval. By vote of two-thirds of those present, the Senate may grant prior authorization to the President and Treasurer to make, for specified purposes, discretionary appropriations.
 
§ 11.5 Tax-Exempt Status: No Senate funds may be appropriated for purposes which would compromise the tax-exempt status of the University, the Law School, and the Senate or which would violate any State or Federal Laws. 

ARTICLE XII. RIGHTS AND POWERS RESERVED TO LAW STUDENTS

§ 12.1 Law Student Body Membership: All individuals who have paid the Law School fee for the current term of study are members of the Law School Student Body for the purposes of this Article.

§ 12.2 Student Rights: The following rights and powers are reserved to the members of the Law School Student Body individually and collectively:
 
a) The right to vote in elections for Senate members and in referenda.
b) The right to petition for recall of Senate officers and members or for referendum vote on any issues which might appropriately be brought before the Senate by a motion on the part of the Senator.
c) The right to due process in all proceedings of a disciplinary nature.
d) The right to seek and hold elective or appointive office.
e) The right to be informed of all official actions by the Senate or all its committees or boards.
f) The right to receive adequate notice prior to all elections, business meetings, and open hearings conducted by the Senate. A regular meeting time and place once established and published shall constitute adequate notice; prior notice of any event published in the official Law School Student Newspaper, posted for two days on the bulletin boards in Hutchins Hall, or published in the Law School weekly bulletin or Docket shall constitute notice.
g) The right in all relations with the Law School and the Senate to be free from discrimination based upon actual or perceived: age, sex, nationality, creed, religion, color, race, sexual orientation, gender identity and expression, disability, familial status, military service, or other purely arbitrary criteria.
h) All other rights and powers not restricted or delegated by this Bylaw Constitution.
 
§ 12.3 Referenda: The Senate may, on its own initiative, hold a referendum of all or part of the Law School Student Body on any properly presented issue affecting those pooled. A petition bearing the signatures of twenty-five per cent of the Lawyers Club members residing in the Lawyers Club shall be sufficient to cause the Senate to hold a referendum of resident members on any issue relating exclusively to residential matters. No school-wide referendum may set policy relating exclusively to residential matters. Except for matters in which the Bylaw Constitution requires a larger margin, a simple majority of the ballots cast in a referendum vote shall be sufficient to bind the Senate until after the next election at which the executive officers are chosen, after which time a majority vote of the Senate is required to change the policy. 

ARTICLE XIII. AMENDMENTS

§ 13.1 Constitutional Amendments: This Bylaw Constitution may be amended by two-thirds vote of the Senate membership (excluding vacant seats) or by a majority vote of those casting ballots in a referendum of the Law School Student Body. Such votes may be cast by proxy, provided that a member of the Senate so voting grants proxy power to another Senate member by a signed, written instrument.
 
§ 13.2 Notice: No amendment may be adopted by vote of the Senate without first being the subject of a report from the Standing Committee on Revision of the Bylaw Constitution and Codes, and also being published to the Law School Student Body at least two times, the first being at least two weeks prior to the Senate Vote.
 
§ 13.3 Amendment of Codes: The Codes governing Elections and Fiscal Accountability and Budgetary Planning may be amended by the Senate by a majority vote of Senate members (excluding vacant seats) providing that the amendments have been the subject of a report from the standing committee on Revision of the Bylaw Constitution and Codes, and also have been published to the Law School Student Body one week in advance of the Senate vote. Such votes may be cast by proxy, provided that a member of the Senate so voting grants proxy power to another Senate member by a signed, written instrument. 

ARTICLE XIV. RATIFICATION AND EFFECTIVE DATES; PROVISIONS FOR TRANSITION

§ 14.1 Ratification: This Bylaw Constitution shall be ratified article by article, by a majority vote of those members of the Law School Student Body participating in a referendum conducted by the currently constituted Law School Student Senate after prior approval by the Executive Committee of the board of Governors of the Lawyers Club. This Bylaw Constitution being so ratified in its original form as of March 28, 1988.
 
§ 14.2 Effective Dates: The provisions of this Bylaw Constitution shall be effective immediately upon ratification or amendment except that any provision which would alter the current Senate Membership shall become effective at the ends of the terms of office of the current membership.
 
§ 14.3 Validity: If, for any reason, including non-ratification, and Article or provision of this Bylaw Constitution is rendered ineffective or invalid, the validity of the remaining Articles and provisions shall not be affected.